Political science questions


Instructions:
•    Answer three of the following four questions as thoroughly as possible.
•    Put down the question number; do not copy the questions;
•    The answers should be coherent, well organized, and complete; and they should be typed, double-spaced, and proofed;
•    Use Times New Roman Font 12, and have one inch margin on all sides;
•    Use APA for citations and references if you cite the textbooks and/or other sources;
•    Review the Evaluation Rubrics.

Question 1 (10 points):
John Kingdon tries to answer the question why some policy agenda items and alternatives are prominent and others are neglected in his Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies.
1.    What is your answer to this question? (one page, 5 points)
2.    Use examples from student oral testimonies to illustrate your answers. (one page, 5 points)

Question 2 (10 points):
Deborah Stone introduces two policy making models, the market and the polis, in her Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making.
1.    Describe three major features of each model, and identify two major strengths and two major weaknesses of each model; (one page, 5 points)
2.    Use examples from student oral testimonies to illustrate your answers. (one page, 5 points)

Question 3 (10 points):
1.    What are the two major similarities and two major differences in the definitions of public policy by Kingdon and Stone? (one page, 5 points)
2.    How would their definitions make you look at public policy in different ways? (one page, 5 points)

Question 4 (10 points):
Thomas Birkland mentions two models of policy implementation, “top-down” and “bottom-up,” in his chapter on policy implementation.
1.    Describe the two models and explain when each model is more appropriate; (one page, 5 points)
2.    Use examples from student oral testimonies to illustrate your answers. (one page, 5 points)

IT project portfolio


Final Exam Questions
•    Read carefully the “Supporting Scaling Agile with Portfolio Management: Case PAF.com” for questions 1 & 2
•    Write answers to the following questions 1 and 2 in your own words labeling each answer as directed in the question.
•    THEN ANSWER QUESTIONS 3 & 4 BASED ON BEING IN A TEAM COMPANY (Fadoodle)
•    Your submission covering all your answers should ideally be 4-6 pages in length (12 point font, double line spaced)

1.    In the case study paf.com has already converted to the agile methodology but has problems that it is hoping that PPM can either solve or alleviate.  Starting with the most severe
1.a. describe that most severe problem
1.b. describe the second most severe problem.

2.    Describe in your own words how paf.com is using the “lean philosophy” is solving the problems you described in 1a and 1b using events in the case study,

3.    Name of your company team and the total amount of company investment funds available and the total amount of VC (Venture Capital) funds wanted and total amount received,
Then, describe in detail how you made or planned to make your industries and markets (parts of the world) attractive to VCs.  Please mention how you contrasted your industries and markets to VC’s comparing yours to those represented by the other company teams.  Please end your answer with your evaluation on how successful your efforts on marketing your industries and markets.

4.    Describe in your own words the measures your company took or planned to take to convince VCs that your proposed projects did not have an unreasonably high level of risk.

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Database programming


Questions
 1. Discuss the importance of data models.
 2. What is a business rule, and what is its purpose in data modeling?  
  3. What languages emerged to standardize the basic network data model, and why was such standardization important to users and designers?
   4. Describe the basic features of the relational data model and discuss their importance to the end user and the designer.
  5. Explain how the entity-relationship (ER) model helped produce a more structured relational database design environment.
   6.Consider the scenario described by the statement “A customer can make many payments, but each payment is made by only one customer.” Use this scenario as the basis for an entity relationship diagram (ERD) representation.   
 7. Why is an object said to have greater semantic content than an entity?     
   8. What is the difference between an object and a class in the object-oriented data model (OODM)?
    9. How would you model Question 7 with an OODM? (Use Figure 2.4 as your guide.)
10. Describe the relationships (identify the business rules) depicted in the Crow’s Foot ERD shown in Figure P2.13.


      
        
          
            
        
        

Marketing Research Questions


Questions
1. Explain the notions of mathematical differences, managerial important differences, and statistical significance. Can results be statistically significant and yet lack managerial importance. Explain your
answer.
2. Describe the steps in the procedure for testing hypotheses. Discuss the difference between a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis.
3. What purpose does a scatter diagram serve?
4. The following ANOVA summary data are the result of a regression with sales per year (dependent variable)as a function of promotion expenditures per year (independent variable) for a toy company.
F = MSA = 34,276
MSE 4,721
The degrees of freedom are 1 for the numerator and 19 for the denominator. Is the relationship statistically significant at " = .05? Comment on your answer.

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Evolution Study questions


Questions
1.    Prior to Darwin, Western tradition held that species originated through Special Creation some six thousand years ago. In addition to Darwin’s personal observations supporting natural selection and his evidence for the geographic clustering of apparently related organisms, other lines of evidence that support an evolutionary model for origins, and explain why conflict with Special Creation (5 pts).
2.    Darwin’s postulates about the nature of natural selection are given on p. 77 of your text. Concisely summarize how modern research on Galapagos finch populations has produced evidence for each of the four postulates occurring in a natural population (5 pts).
3.    Both Lamarck and Darwin would probably argue that the long, sticky tongue of the anteater evolved as an adaptation for more efficient food gathering. Describe in detail how you suspect that Lamarck’s and Darwin’s explanations of the mechanism which account for this anteater adaptation would differ (5 pts).
4.    Draw a simple phylogeny showing the relatedness among the following vertebrates:

Baboon        Sparrow    Fruit Bat    Herring

Map the following three onto your phylogeny:

Ability to fly    Presence of Gills    Lactation (milk production)
Only one of the traits is a synapomorphy. Which trait is it and what two characteristics make the trait a synapomorphy? (5 pts)
5.    Find an example from some media source (the internet, newspaper, etc.) that depicts a misrepresentation or distortion of modern evolutionary theory. Then write a summary that explains and corrects the misconception. Please ATTACH a copy of your source (5 pts).

Network security monitoring


Questions

1. In the network diagram above, select one of the letters as the location to place your only IDS sensor. Explain why it is better than the other 3 locations.
Create a snort rule to detect the word monkey in ICMP packets leaving your home network of 10.10.0.0/16.
2. Your colleague was asked to write a snort rule to detect connections over port 80 coming from the internal network and going to a specific external host (8.8.4.4). His rule isn't work right. What is the problem? (Note: $HOME_NET is properly defined in this instance of snort.)
alert tcp $8.8.4.4 80 <­ $HOME_NET any (msg:"Port 80 connect to 8.8.4.4"; sid:1000002; rev:2;)
3.Your colleague was asked to write a snort rule to detect tcp traffic from the internet containing the word layoff. You aren't surprised when it doesn't work, because this is the second time he's asked you for help during this final. You take a look at the rule. Why doesn't it work?
alert tcp $EXTERNAL_NET ­> $HOME_NET any (msg:"Layoff message detected!"; content: "|layoff|"; sid:1000003; rev:1;)
4. A new botnet named Honeyshark has emerged. You have been instructed to write a Snort rule to look for the command and control channel that uses IRC over port 6667, 6668, and 6670. Write a rule to detect Honeyshark command and control connections.
5. A new bit of malware called Honeymonkey has emerged. It is interesting in the fact it uses ICMP echo reply and DNS over UDP to transfer data. Messages always contain the hex DE AD BE EF regardless of protocols.
Create one or two rules that will specifically catch this information.
5. You suspect your coworker Andy is planning something nefarious. Another coworker suggests setting up IDS rules to monitor for key words to catch Andy's internet searches. What is the flaw in this plan?
6. After a particularly nasty distributed denial of service attack, all IT staff are invited to a conference call to discuss network changes. The security intern notes that he has captured all the IP address, MAC addresses, and port numbers from the attack. He suggest blocking the source MAC address as this would block the most attackers. You spit Mountain Dew all over your monitor and unmute your phone. What are you going to say?


Judicial Review and Administrative Bureaucracy


Answer the following questions.
APA format. 2-3 citations.
1. The APA & judicial review are a necessary part of the modern democracy. Discuss.
2. Over the last century, the administrative bureaucracy has grown dramatically in size & influence. Provide reasons for this growth.
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VW of America


Case: VW of America
Read the case and answer the following questions:
1.    What consequences did outsourcing to Perot Systems in 1992 have?
2.    At the beginning of the decade, what were the principal problems with the IT function?
3.    How did Matulovic ensure projects started to be delivered on time?
4.    Page 6 of the case identifies 3 investment types. Slide 9 “A system portfolio” of your class slides on “Project selection” show four basic priorities in projects. To which of the four priorities do the 3 investment types belong?
5.    The options presented via bullet points on page 8 of the case are typical of management decisions relating to IT expenditure. Finally which option was chosen?
6.    Do you think that the system used to prioritise IT expenditure used by VW of America is good or bad? Why? How would you improve it?

Buy American Requirements


Assignment 3: Buy American Requirements
Due Week 6 and worth 240 points
In order to complete this assignment, refer to the scenario from Assignment 1, as well as to the scenarios and readings from previous weeks.
Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you:
1.Specify the main points of the Buy American Requirements in one page or less.
2.Determine the substantive means by which the Buy American Requirements would benefit both VectorCal and your new company. Provide a rationale for your response.
3.Analyze the fundamental ways in which the Buy American Requirements are contradictory to a capitalistic ethos, given that the U.S. government claims to promote competition, and the U.S. espouses a free market ideology (i.e., capitalism). Support your answer with two examples of such a contradiction.
4.Debate whether or not you believe that the exceptions to the Buy American Requirements set forth by the government are fair and advantageous to the US economy. Provide a rationale for your response.
5.Determine the key advantages and disadvantages of using the Buy American Requirements with the navigation system that both VectorCal and your company produce. Justify your response.
6.Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

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Company analysis


Tools and techniques for managing data

You have explored many options for managing data as well as its importance to the overall health of an organization in making well-informed decisions. Many organizations feel that they have to utilize powerful and expensive solutions, but there are also cheaper alternatives. For example, MS Excel can be a great tool to manage data and identify answers to any questions. Thus, whether your organization is big or small, all the tools need to be evaluated to determine the one that will work best, not only in managing the data but also in lowering the overall cost. Managing cost is important, as you do not want to implement a solution that will bankrupt the organization; that, in itself, is an ill-informed decision.Using the Internet, research tools and techniques of managing data.

Respond to the following:

What would be some of the mistakes or consequences of not investigating the costs associated with the organization’s information systems (data collection) choice? Besides going bankrupt, what other effects could it have on the organization? Could it lead to bad decision making? Explain.
What systems does your organization utilize, either as a whole or per department? Is this solution effective? Why or why not? Is there a solution that would be more effective? If not, explain why.
With the various solutions available today, which one do you think would work best for you? Meaning, which of these solutions (such as MS Excel or a decision-support system) would work best on the following criteria:
Ease of use
Interpretation of data
Sharing of data
Often, we think of business analytics as only for businesses. However, can any of these tools be used for personal decision making? Provide some examples of how you could utilize these tools.

Write your initial response in 300–500 words. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

IT project management question


Question
A large number of U.S.-based mergers over the past two decades have failed to achieve the forecasted business benefits of the merger. Develop an argument for why poor IT project management could contribute to this type of failure.

Solution
IT Project Management
With the current proliferation of technology, the success of a business is heavily influenced by the adoption of relevant and current technology. Data collection and management is also essential to the success of a merger and information technology plays a central role. However, acquiring inferior technology spells doom for the organization (Brown, 2012). Business merging and acquisition is a process and as such it should be properly managed. The success of any information technology process depends on how well it is managed. Therefore, poor management contributes to failure whereas proper management of the project stipulates success for the business.
Planning is critical to achieving forecasted goals and objectives of a company. Good information technology management is characterized by planning prior to implementation and execution of the proposed model

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Confidence Interval


All answers should be complete sentences. 

1.    When rolling a die, is this an example of a discrete or continuous random variable? Explain your reasoning.
2.    Calculate the mean and standard deviation of the probability distribution created by rolling a die. Either show work or explain how your answer was calculated.
Mean: ____________        Standard deviation: _________________
3.    Give the mean for the mean column of the Worksheet. Is this estimate centered about the parameter of interest (the parameter of interest is the answer for the mean in question 2)?
4.    Give the mean for the median column of the Worksheet. Is this estimate centered about the parameter of interest (the parameter of interest is the answer for the mean in question 2)?
5.    Give the standard deviation for the mean and median column. Compare these and be sure to identify which has the least variability?
6.    Based on questions 3, 4, and 5 is the mean or median a better estimate for the parameter of interest? Explain your reasoning.
7.    Give and interpret the 95% confidence interval for the hours of sleep a student gets.
8.    Give and interpret the 99% confidence interval for the hours of sleep a student gets.
9.    Compare the 95% and 99% confidence intervals for the hours of sleep a student gets. Explain the difference between these intervals and why this difference occurs.





IT project management


Question
If you were a chief marketing officer, what metrics might you use to evaluate the performance of the IS organization in your company? What else might you use to evaluate the performance of the IS organization?

Solution
IT Project Management
The current global technology status requires an efficient information system department in every organization in order to guarantee the success of the firm. Organizations have evolved, and so have the approaches for evaluating organizational performance. The essence is to be informed about the procedure used for evaluation to determine ways to apply to handle competition (Brown, 2012). Theorists propose different models for evaluating the performance of an organization. The essence of this paper is to determine the most applicable measure to utilize in evaluating the performance of an organization in marketing.
The institutional and organizational assessment model (IOA) is an elaborate performance metric to adopt for reviewing the performance of a firm (Martz, 2013). The model is oriented to determining the relevance, effectiveness, financial viability, and efficiency of the organization

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Economic Development Questions


Economic Development Questions
1. Use the Lewis model to illustrate and explain how “easy development” takes place and why “easy development” may no longer be feasible. Explain why following the Lewis model may fail to lead to successful long term development.
2. Briefly explain how a micro-finance institution differs from a traditional commercial bank model. Why are micro-finance institutions especially important for women?
3. What sorts of polices might raise incomes and productivity within the urban informal sector? Why do Todaro and Smith warn that such strategies may be counterproductive?
4. Explain how international trade and trade policy helped South Korea transform itself from an underdeveloped country to a high income country in the space of a single generation.
 5. Discuss how Sen’s capabilities approach to understanding the meaning of development differs from simply focusing on average income levels.
6. Explain the meaning and significance of the demographic transition

7. Compare the population policies pursued in China and India.
8. What are the key characteristics of the urban informal sector? Should government actively promote the urban informal sector?
9. What is meant by human capital? Explain how economic analysis can be used to evaluate decisions to invest in education or training.
10. Discuss the problem of the AIDS epidemic in developing countries. What measures do you suggest to deal with this problem?

Criminal Law


Question

What are some forms of corruption within criminal justice agencies and security organizations?

Cite the reference as per APA guidelines.

Please, NO PASSIVE VOICE.

Check write up for grammar errors and run on sentences.

Read for clarity.

Criminal Law Essay
Before a case reaches the courts, there are several organizations that may get involved in corrupt practices. Among them are the police force, lawyers, and prosecutors. After the final verdict of the court, the prison system is expected to enforce the decision. Needless to say that corruption and injustice may arise in this final system. The links between these bodies constitute corruption within the justice system in the event that one or multiple elements that make up the system gets involved in criminal undertakings (Mann, 2011). The forms of corruption that apply in a criminal justice agency also trickle down to security organizations such as the police, border security, intelligence agencies and the military.
Low salaries, inadequate and poor training, lack of appreciation and rewards are major contributors to corruption

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Health Management


Questions on health management
1. Nick has been handed a project where he has to implement Online Gaming, requiring significant technological integration. What factors does he need to consider and manage for the project to be a success?
2. At CanGo, what do we need to consider for a good plan to implement technology?
3. What are the costs of the new systems that may be implemented? How do we justify their implementation at CanGo?
4. What are Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR)?
5. The prospect of searching for a job can be very intimidating. What techniques have you used in the past when you were job hunting? Which ones were most effective? Least effective? What do you attribute their effectiveness (or lack of effectiveness) to?
6. Research suggests that people who articulate their goals, either by telling someone else or writing them down, tend to be more likely to achieve them. Do you have short- and long-term SMART goals that are guiding your educational and career path planning? Please share one long-term SMART goal and two relevant short-term SMART goals related to your education or your career.
7. List 6 issues facing CanGo new gaming production and actionable recommendation for each of the issues found. These should also be numbered.
8. Explain controlling interest and target market issue for CanGo gaming production and a recommendation.

Lucent Technologies


REQUIRED 
1. Conduct a DuPont decomposition of Lucent's ROE for each quarter of 1998, 1999 and 2000 (December 1999 is fiscal year 2000’s first quarter). What factors contributed to the differences in Lucent's performance between those quarters? 
2. Evaluate the seasonally adjusted change (i.e., quarter i in year t to quarter i in year t-1) in Lucent's: Sales, Accounts Receivable, Inventory and Gross Margin for the five quarterly periods: December 1998 through December 1999. Be sure to include an evaluation of the Footnote disclosures regarding Lucent's inventories in your examination. Does the explanation for the earnings shortfall provided by Lucent's managers make sense in light of your analysis? 
3. Based on your analysis:
a) When might you have determined that Lucent would be unable to maintain its streak of record earnings? 
b) Do you think the class-action lawsuits have merit?
c) Would you expect Lucent's earnings to 'recover' by the second quarter of 2000? 
d) What obstacles are there to Lucent’s recovery?


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Business and Economics


Over the last year your boss has noticed that it would be useful for your firm to understand how consumers behave when variables in the market change and how these changes affect the total revenue for your product. You have been asked to do an analysis for your product, Good A, by addressing the following questions and reporting the results to your boss in a formal paper.
Questions:
  1. Define the price elasticity of demand? What information does it provide? How is it calculated?
  2. Define the income elasticity of demand? What information does it provide? How is it calculated?
  3. Define the cross-price elasticity of demand? What information does it provide? How is it calculated?
  4. What is total revenue? How is it calculated?
  5. Define elastic, inelastic, and unitary elasticity means. How are these related to total revenue? Explain your answers.
  6. With respect to the price elasticity of demand, construct a graph using the data in Figure1. Illustrate the ranges on the demand curve that indicate elastic, inelastic, and unitary elasticity. Explain your answers. Enter non-numerical responses in the same worksheet using textboxes.
  7. Calculate the total revenue for each level of demand and post into the table, Figure 1. (Copy and paste this table into the Microsoft Word document that will form part of your submission.)
  8. Using the midpoints formula presented in the textbook, calculate the price elasticity coefficient for each price level, starting with the coefficient for the $4 to $6 level. For each coefficient, indicate each type of elasticity: elastic demand, inelastic demand, or unitary demand. Post your answers into the table, Figure 1.
  9. Assume that the income of consumers changes by 10%, and as a result the quantity demanded for Good A changes by 8%. What is the income elasticity of demand for Good A? What does this mean for your company?
  10. Assume that the price of competing Good B decreases by 5% and as a result, the quantity demand for Good A decreases by 8%. What is the cross-price elasticity for your product? What type of goods are Good A and Good B?
Figure 1: The Demand Schedule for Barbeque Dinners

Price
Quantity Demanded
Total Revenue
Elasticity Coefficient
Elastic or Inelastic
$4
100
__________
XXXX
XXXX
6
80
__________
__________
__________
8
60
__________
__________
__________
10
40
__________
__________
__________
12
20
__________
__________
__________
14
1
__________
__________
__________
Required:
Prepare an analysis by answering the above-noted questions. Your analysis will consist of two documents as follows:
  1. Microsoft Word document: Questions 1-5, 7-10.
  2. Microsoft Excel worksheet: Question 6
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Computer Science

Describe a buffer overflow and the possible consequences of a buffer overflow occurring
A buffer overflow is a condition that occurs in any computer program when there is more input than the memory allocated for holding the data (Whitman & Mattord, 2003). The result is that another information is overwritten. Buffer overflow is a common technique used by attackers to exploit a system through crashing or inserting tailored code that enables them to control the system. Some possible consequences of a buffer overflow include data corruption, violations of memory access and termination of the program.
Explain what a cross-site scripting attack is and the goal of such an attack.
A cross-site scripting attack is a form of a security vulnerability for computer information systems where input provided by one user in a program is used as the output to another user. The attacks are implemented in web applications and thus known as XSS attacks. Script code is included in the HTML content of a browse that is displayed to the user. Some common scripts used to carry out the attack are JavaScript, Ajax, Flash, VBScript and ActiveX (Stamp, 2006). The goal of cross-site scripting attacks is to exploit the security checks in the browser and gain access to private and privileged information that may be sensitive and of high value belonging to another website.
Describe some of the basic steps that should be taken when hardening an operating system.
Hardening an operating system involves taking measures to make it more resistant and resilient to common attacks. According to the Australian Defense Signals Directorate implementing the top strategies reduces cyber intrusion by 70% (Dhillon, 2007). Some of the recommended basic steps for hardening an operating system include patching the system and its applications with auto-update capabilities. Such an approach makes the system resilient to common attacks. Secondly, patching third party applications. This ensures they are not targeting. Admin privileges should be restricted to only users who need them and are verified. Lastly, approved application should be whitelisted to unmask intrusions easily.
Describe the three overall classes of security controls and three categories of controls that can be included within each security class.
Security controls, countermeasures or safeguards are measures used to reduce risk to information systems. The controls are classified into three classes as either management, technical or operational controls. Management controls involve policies, guidelines, planning and standards applied by an organization in the selection of technical and operational controls to minimize risks (Stallings, Brown, Bauer & Howard, 2008).  Operational controls address the use and implementation of the standards and policies to ensure consistency. Lastly, technical controls imply the correct application of hardware and software to mitigate security threats.
References
Dhillon, G. (2007). Principles of information systems security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Stallings, W., Brown, L., Bauer, M., & Howard, M. (2008). Computer security. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Stamp, M. (2006). Information security. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Interscience.

Whitman, M., & Mattord, H. (2003). Principles of information security. Boston, Mass.: Thomson Course Technology.

Art History


Art History Questions
1. Abstract Expressionism is one of the most male-dominated and mythologized art movements of the second half of the 20th century.  Your book includes Lee Krasner and Joan Mitchell.  Why do you think they are only now receiving critical attention and were not seen as important as their male peers at the time of their life?
The two main art critics that promoted the New York School were Clement Greenberg and Harold Rosenberg.  There are excerpts from Greenberg in your text.  Research the two critics and briefly summarize their perspectives on art.  How are they similar and how are they different?  (Points : 10)
2. What are the major distinguishing characteristics of post war European art?  Almost the entire chapter focuses on American and particularly New York artists.  Why do you think this change occurred and what important contributions did the European artists make? (Points : 10)
3. Geometric abstraction has been used by many artists in this chapter for different ends.  Weigh in on the importance of simplified geometry and how this form results in so many different contents. For instance, David Smith, Louise Nevelson, Donald Judd and Frank Stella all employed basic geometry as part of their artistic form with entirely separate ideologies and goals (Points : 10)
 4. New Media-  Post war America saw an explosion of  possible materials for art Making.  Dripped, paint, installations, theatrical performances, used tires, light, video, and the earth itself.  What do you think the single most radical use of materials was? and why?  Research the web and find an artist that is still living today who is using that material and relate them to the artist in the book. (Points : 10)
5. Gender and identity as subject in art becomes a major topic for many artists, even creating a term: feminist art.  This term became universally applied to any female artist that took on a subject related to subject matter of women, femininity, or gendered mediums like fabric and fiber.  Should we then consider art that has been made throughout history for men such as objectified female nudes, war and portraits of kings Masculinist art?  Interestingly, the book places Bourgeois, De Saint-Phalle, and Flack, all of whom make art that comments on gender and identity outside of the feminist label.  What happens to art when it is categorized as feminist? (Points : 10)


Multiple choice questions and answers


PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAMINATION FORM.

1.   Which of the following statements is correct?
      a.  Real GDP is the total market value of the final goods and
           services produced in America for sale in a year valued in the prices of 1992.
      b.  Your buying stock in the stock market is an example of investment spending
      c.  Potential Real GDP is always greater than Equilibrium Real GDP
      d.  Social security and welfare are examples of spending on infrastructure.
      e.  All of the above

2.   The period of the business cycle in which real GDP is increasing is called the:   
       a.  expansion    b.  peak    c.  recession     d.  trough     e.  stagflation

3.   Assume that, in the population, 95 million people worked for pay last week, 5 million people did not work for pay but had been seeking a job, 5 million people did not work for pay and had not been seeking a job for the past several months, and 45 million were under age 16.  The unemployment rate, given these numbers, is:
       a.  5%     b.  8%     c.  10%     d.  20%     e.  45%

4.  A type of unemployment in which workers are in-between jobs or are searching for new and better jobs is called _______ unemployment:
       a.  frictional      b.  cyclical       c.  structural      d.  turnover   

5.  Consider three consumer goods: 100 of Good A, 100 of Good B, and 100 of Good C.  In the base year, Good A sold at a price of $1, Good B sold at a price of $1, and Good C sold at a price of $1.  In the current year, Good A sold at a price of $3, Good B sold at a price of $5, and Good C sold at a price of $10.  The Consumer Price Index (CPI) for the current year is:
      a.  100      b.  300     c.  500     d.  600     e.  1000

6.  Which of the following is a "loser" from unexpected inflation?
      a.  workers with COLAs          c.  people who own Treasury Bills
      b.  the middle class                  d.  people who own homes and have fixed-rate mortgages

7.  If the nominal interest rate on a checking account is 2% and the inflation rate is 3% this year, the real interest rate is:
       a.  5%     b.  2%     c.  2/3%     d. –1%     e.  3%

8.  Which of the following would cause the demand curve for automobiles to shift to the left?
      a.  an increase in the price of the automobiles
      b.  an increase in the interest rate paid to borrow money to pay for the automobile
      c.  an increase in buyers' incomes
      d.  an increase in the cost of production of automobiles

9.  Suppose it is announced that industry analysts are predicting that decreased oil supplies from Iraq will cause gasoline prices to rise, beginning next month.  In the current week, the announcement would:
     a.  shift the supply of gasoline right       c.  shift the demand for gasoline left
     b.  shift the demand for gasoline right   d.  have no effect on the demand or supply of gasoline
   
10. "At the price of $500, tickets for the Super Bowl are expensive.  Yet, the are long lines of people who wish to buy them.  Many people who desire tickets will not be able to find them."
    From this quote, we know that the price of Super Bowl tickets must be:
    a.  below equilibrium   b. above equilibrium   c. equal to equilibrium

11. Assume that the market for computers begins in equilibrium.  Then, there is a decrease in a price of Pentium processors used in the production of computers.  When the new equilibrium is reached,
    a.  the price and quantity of computers will both have risen
    b.  the price and quantity of computers will both have fallen
    c.  the price of computers will have risen and the quantity will have fallen
    d.  the price of computers will have fallen and the quantity will have risen

12. Assume that the market for the stock of Microsoft begins in equilibrium.  Then, both buyers and sellers expect that the new Linux (a competitor of Microsoft Windows) will be a large success, reduing Microsoft sales.  When the new equilibrium is reached,
    a.  the price and quantity of the stock will both have risen
    b.  the price and quantity of the stock will both have fallen
    c.  the quantity of the stock will fall and the price will rise
    d.  the quantity of the stock will fall but the effect on price cannot be determined
    e.  the price of the stock will fall but the effect on quantity cannot be determined

13. Assume that the market for Mexican pesos begin in equilibrium.  Then, the Mexican economy experiences a severe recession.  Because of the recession, the Mexican companies lower their prices. As a result of the recession and lower prices in Mexico:
    a.  the dollar depreciates and the peso appreciates  c.  the dollar and the peso both appreciate
    b.  the dollar appreciates and the peso depreciates  d.  the dollar and the peso both depreciate

14.  Which of the following is an example of "portfolio investment"?

     a.  An American places funds in a savings account in Canada
b.  Tokyo Bank of Japan buys Union Bank of the United States
c.  Saturn Corp. (owned by General Motors) builds a new factory in Tennessee
 d.  An American puts $10,000 into a money market fund
     e.  All of the above

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15. Which of the following would cause the aggregate demand curve to shift to the right?
      a.  an increase in purchases by the federal government
      b.  an increase in real interest rates
      c.  an appreciation of the American dollar
      d.  a decrease in the money supply

16.  Assume that an economy begins in macroeconomic equilibrium.  Then, taxes are  significantly decreased.  As a result of this change:
       a.  there is expansion and inflation in the US     c.  there is stagflation in the US
       b.  there is recession and deflation in the US     d.  there is expansion and deflation in the US

17. A large increase in oil prices, such as the ones occurring in 1973 and 1979, will cause
      a.  inflation and expansion               c.  inflation and recession
      b.  recession and disinflation           d.  expansion and deflation

18. Assume that production in the United States is valued at $10,000.  National income is therefore $10,000.  Of their income, workers pay $1,000 in taxes, save $500, spend $8,000 on consumer goods, and spend $500 on imports.  Businesses spend $1,000 in new investment spending.  And, foreigners spend $500 on exports.  In order to avoid any problems of inflation or unemployment, the government should have a budget deficit or surplus of:
     a.  0         b.  $500 surplus     c.  $500 deficit     d.  $1,000 deficit    e.  $2,000 deficit                 

19.  From 1990 to 1995, the U.S. economy was in a recessionary gap.  According to the classical economists, which of the following should have occurred?
       a.  wages should have fallen which would cause more workers to be hired
       b.  prices should have fallen which would increase consumer spending
       c.  interest rates should have fallen which would increase consumer and investment spending
       d.  all of the above should have occurred

20.  Which of the following statements is/are true about the classical quantity theory of money?
       a.  The equation of exchange is MV = PQ
       b.  The classical economists assumed that V would rise when real interest rates rise
c.       The classical economists concluded that increases in the money supply cause increases
      in real GDP and nothing else
       d. all of the above

21.    Assume that the United States and Great Britain are both on the Gold Standard.  There is
inflation in the United States but not in Great Britain.  As a result of the inflation in the United States,
a.       Gold would leave the United States and go to Great Britain
b.      Gold would leave Great Britain and go to the United States
c.       The American dollar would depreciate
d.      The American money supply would increase

22.  At an income of $100,000, I spent $90,000 on consumer goods.  When my income rose to $200,000, I spent $160,000 on consumer goods.  My marginal propensity to consume is:
       a.  0.9     b.  0.8     c.  0.7     d.  1     e.  $70,000

23.  National             Disposable
       Income    Taxes  Income    Consumption Investment Government
       $100       $100           0               $ 50                $ 25            $100
         200         100       100                125                   25              100
         300         100       200                200                   25              100
         400         100       300                275                   25              100
         500         100       400                350                   25              100
         600         100       500                425                   25              100
         700         100       600                500                   25              100
         800         100       700                575                   25              100

       Using these numbers, the equilibrium real GDP (equal to National Income) is:
       a.  300     b.  400     c.  500     d.  600     e.  700

24.  Which of the following would cause consumption to rise?
       a.  the GDP Deflator rises
       b.  a greater proportion of the population is between age 20 and 30
       c.  transitory income increases
       d.  income is taken from poor people and given to rich people

25.  Which of the following would cause business investment spending to rise?
       a.  an increase in real interest rates from 5% to 8%
       b.  a decrease in the corporate profits tax rate from 48% to 34%
       c.  a reduction of the investment tax credit from 10% to 2%
       d.  sales falling in relation to capacity from 90% to 60%
26.  Assume that net exports increase by $1 billion.  Equilibrium Real GDP will rise by more than $1 billion.  Explain why. (i.e., why is there a multiplier?).
     a.  an increase in net exports appreciates the dollar causing a further increase in net exports
     b.  an increase in net exports causes an increase in tax revenues which increases
          government spending
     c.  an increase in net exports increases income causing an increase in  induced consumption
     d.  an increase in net exports causes an increase in the money supply

27.  The largest transfer in the federal budget is:
a.  defense     b.  education     c.  social security     d.  welfare      e.  police

28.  The largest tax collected at the federal government level is the:
a.  income tax     b.  sales tax     c.  property tax     d.  social security tax

29.  A person had an income of $20,000 last year and paid $10,000 in tax.  This year, the person
had an income of $100,000 and paid $30,000 in tax.  The person’s marginal tax rate is:
      a.  25%     b. 30%    c.  50%     d.  100%

30.  The tax in question 29 is:
a.  progressive     b.  regressive     c.  proportional

31.  Assume that Equilibrium GDP is $4,000 billion.  Potential GDP is $5,000 billion.  The marginal propensity to consume is 4/5 (0.8).  By how much and in what direction should government purchases be changed?
       a.  increase by $1,000 billion        c.  increase by $100 billion
       b. decrease by $1,000 billion        d.  increase by $200 billion

32.  Using the numbers in question 31, by how much should taxes be changed?
       a.  increased by $1,000 billion    c.  decreased by $200 billion
       b. decreased by $1,000 billion    d.  decreased by $250 billion

33.  Assume that Equilibrium Real GDP is $20,000 while Potential Real GDP is $15,000.  The marginal propensity to consume is 9/10.  Assume that government decides to lower taxes by $1,000.  To pay for this, it lowers government purchases by $1,000.  As a result of these two changes, what is the new Equilibrium Real GDP?
       a.  $19,000     b.  $20,000     c.  $21,000     d.  $14,000     e.  $1,000

34.  Which of the following statements is true about the national debt?
        a.  In total, it is higher now than it has ever been
        b.  Most of it is owed by the federal government to foreigners
        c.  It means that a tremendous burden is being passed to our children
        d.  Because of it, the United States is on the verge of bankruptcy
        e.  All of the above

35.  If the official federal budget shows a deficit of $200 billion while the structural budget is has a surplus of $200 billion, it can be concluded that:
       a.  the intent of fiscal policy is very expansionary     
       b.  there is hyperinflation
       c.  the unemployment rate is well above the natural rate
       d.  state and local governments have large surpluses
       e.  off-budget spending is counted in the official deficit but not in the structural deficit

36.  The Phillips curve describes the relationship between:
      a.  the federal budget deficit and the trade deficit
      b.  savings and investment
      c.  the unemployment rate and the inflation rate
      d.  marginal tax rates and tax revenues

37.  Several adjustments have been suggested to the official budget deficit to be able to measure the effects of the budget deficit on the economy.  For which of the following would the adjusted deficit be larger than the official budget deficit?
      a.   state and local budget surpluses need to be added to the official budget deficit
  1. the effects of unemployment need to be taken out of the official budget deficit
  2. the effects of inflation need to be taken out of the official budget deficit
  3. off-budget spending needs to be added to the official budget deficit

38. Which of the following is included in M-1?
       a.  gold                  c.  checkable deposits                   e.  stock
       b.  credit cards      d.  money market mutual funds

39.  Which of the following is true about the Federal Reserve System?
       a.  its seven Board members are appointed by the President of the United States
       b.  its main policy-making body is called the CBO
       c.  it insures checking accounts against bank failure
       d.  it accepts deposits from individuals and makes loans for mortgages
       e.  All of the above

PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THIS EXAMINATION FORM.


40.  Assume that the Fed increases the monetary base by $1 billion when the reserve requirement is 1/7.  As a result, the money supply will:
       a.  increase by $1 billion   c.  increase by $7 billion
       b. decrease by $1 billion   d.  increase by $143 million

41.  If the Fed wishes to decrease (tighten) the money supply, it should:
       a.  buy Treasury securities in the open market
       b.  raise the discount rate
       c.  lower the reserve requirements
       d.  raise marginal tax rates

42.  The demand for money will fall if:
       a.  Real GDP rises                      c.  the GDP Deflator rises   
       b.  real interest rates rise            d.  people expect deflation soon

43.  An increase in the money supply causes:    
       a.  interest rates to fall, investment spending to rise, and  aggregate demand to rise
       b.  interest rates to rise, investment spending to rise, and aggregate demand to rise
       c.  interest rates to rise, investment spending to fall, and aggregate demand to fall
       d.  interest rates to fall, investment spending to fall,  and aggregate demand to fall

44.  If individuals forecast future prices by examining the rates of inflation of the present and recent past, they are using:
       a.  adaptive expectations     c.  inflationary expectations
       b.  rational expectations      d.  structural expectations

45.  If the actual unemployment rate is below the natural rate of unemployment, it would be expected that:
       a.  the rate of inflation would increase     c.  the Phillips curve would shift to the left
       b.  wages would fall                                 d.  the natural rate of unemployment would fall

46.  According to the monetarist acceleration theory, in the long-run,
a.       the actual unemployment rate will be below the natural rate of unemployment
b.      the actual unemployment rate will be equal to the natural rate of unemployment
c.       the actual inflation rate will be equal to the natural inflation rate
d.      the budget deficit will be equal to zero
e.       the money supply will be growing at a constant rate per year

47.    According to the monetarists, in the long-run, the Phillips Curve is:

a.  vertical                     c.  downward-sloping
b.  horizontal                d.  upward-sloping

48.  Which of the following statements is true about supply-side economics?
       a.  The main change made by the tax laws of 1981 and 1986 was to 
            increase marginal tax rates in order to balance the budget
       b.  The Laffer Curve says that, if marginal tax rates fall, tax
            revenues will rise, and the budget deficit will decrease
c.       If the tax laws of 1981 and 1986 had had their intended effect, consumption would have
risen, causing an increase in both real GDP and in the price level           
       d.  All of the above

49.  Those who oppose a Constitutional amendment to require a balanced federal budget would make which of the following arguments:
       a.  Deficits are bad because they can cause crowding out
       b.  Such an amendment could force the government to undertake
            policies that would increase a recessionary gap
       c.  Deficits can cause inflation by increasing aggregate demand
       d.  Budget deficits can cause an increase in the trade deficit by appreciating the dollar

50.  If the money supply is:         The interest rate is:
            $100 billion                            10%
             120 billion                               8%
             140 billion                               6%
             160 billion                               4%
             120 billion                               2%

     If the interest rate is:        Investment spending is:
              10%                           $10 billion
               8%                            20 billion
               6%                            30 billion
               4%                            40 billion
               2%                            50 billion

     Assume that equilibrium GDP is $400 billion, potential GDP is $500 billion, the marginal propensity to consume is 9/10, the interest rate is 8%, investment spending is $20 billion, the money supply is $120 billion, and the reserve requirement is 1/10.  By how much and in what direction should the Fed change the monetary base?
     a.  increase it by $20 billion             d.  increase it by $2 billion
     b.  decrease it by $100 billion          e.  decrease it by $10 billion
     c.  increase it by $90 billion

END OF EXAMINATION

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