Research Article Critique, Part Two Nurses’ Perceptions of Teamwork and Workplace Bullying (Logan & Malone, 2018)

Instructions:  A major skill that is learned in this course is how to critically read and critique nursing research articles.  The purpose for critiquing an article is to critically evaluate the research process followed by the author(s) of the assigned article. This is an information-intensive, time-intensive process that is not learned overnight.   To demonstrate your skill at critiquing an article, you will complete this open-book multiple choice assignment.

Here's how you should approach completing this week’s assignment to finish critiquing an article:

1.  First, do your assigned reading in Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) and complete the reading worksheets early in the week.  This will introduce you to the critique skills you will need for the week.

2.  Skim the entire instructor assigned research article that has been posted on Blackboard for you so that you will have an idea of what it is about.  Lightly cross out the abstract for the article (you won't be using it). Then, for this week, re-read carefully from the study design section through the end of the article.

3.  Print this document and find the best answer to each question below based on your Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015) assigned reading for the week and what you have read in the instructor assigned research article.

4.  Some of the questions in the critique assignment below will seem unfamiliar to you. Look up key terms from the question in your textbook.  Some examples of these terms might be: power analysis, inter-rater reliability, and generalization. You can also look in Chapter 12 for an example of a critical appraisal (or critique) of a quantitative research article.

5. Once you have completed this assignment “on paper”, go into blackboard and enter your answers by the assignment due date and time listed in the syllabus.  Ignore any wording from Blackboard that indicates that “this is a test” and carefully enter your answers from this document. 

6.  You will have two access attempts to record your answers.  This is given to you so that if you encounter technical difficulties on your first attempt, or you would like a second attempt to try to improve your grade, you may do so.  You will not be able to see the questions that you missed when you submit your attempt.  Blackboard will record the highest grade from the two submissions.

If you have questions about this assignment, you can post them to your group discussion board for help.  Please do not post the exact question from the assignment below and ask the group for the answer as this would constitute academic dishonesty.

Questions 1 - 9: Sample.  (For help with these questions, refer to chapters:  9 & 12)

1.  What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?

                a.   Simple random sampling

                b.   Systematic sampling

                c.   Purposive (convenience) sampling

                d.   Network sampling


2.  According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), what are the potential biases of this sampling method?

a.   This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias

b.   This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.

c.   This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time. 

d.   This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don’t share these types of experiences.

e.   None of the above biases best describe the sampling method chosen by the author.


3.  What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?

a.  1000 participants

b.  351 participants

c.  250 participants

d.  128 participants


4.  Was a power analysis conducted?  If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis?

a.   The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted, and state that the low power level of 0.89 for the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient is a limitation of the study. 

b.   The authors mention that an a priori power analysis was conducted, and 1000 subjects were

       determined to be needed for the study.

c.   The authors do not report that a power analysis was conducted.


5.  Which of these statements would be considered to be inclusion criterion for the sample in the research article?

                a.   Have at least two years of acute care experience

                b.   Able to read English

                c.   Be a member of the American Nurses Association

                d.   Work at the bedside at least 8 hours per week



6.  Which of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically identified by the author for the sample in the research article?

           a.  There were no exclusion criteria mentioned by the authors.

                b.  Nursing charge nurses and managers were excluded from the study.

c.   New graduate nurses were excluded from this study. 

d.  PRN and float pool nurses were excluded from this study.


7.  What is the refusal rate for this study? (Hint: see page 253 in your text)

                a.   250/351 X 100% = 69.25%

                b.   223/351 X 100% = 63.5%

                c.   unknown / cannot be calculated.

                d.   0%


8.  Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study?

                a.   128/351 X 100% = 36.4%

                b.   128/223 X 100% = 57.4%

                c.   unknown / cannot be calculated.


9.   What was the setting for this research study?  Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.

a.   The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.

b.   The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.

c.   The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.

d.   The setting for this study was not well described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for conducting this study.


Question 10 - 14: Measurement Methods.  (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12.)

10.  Which one of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures is used in this research study?

                a.  The Nursing Incivility Scale (NIS)

b.  The Team STEPPS Scale

                c.   The Team Characteristics Survey

                d.   The Attitudes About Incivility Scale (AAIS)


11.  How do the authors describe the CURRENT reliability of the Attitudes About Teamwork Survey?

        a.   they compared the odd and even questions on the test to determine their equivalence

b.   a team of staff nurses was trained by the primary investigator to administer the questionnaire.

c.   they tested the current group of subjects twice using the same questionnaire (test-retest reliability).

       d.    they reported a Cronbach’s alpha on the current group of subjects.



12. How do the authors describe the validity of the Attitudes About Teamwork Survey?

              a.    Discriminant validity demonstrated that each question measured the same constructs.

b.   A content validity index (Lynn, 1986) was calculated based on item ratings provided by a national panel of experts.

c.   The authors obtained evidence of validity from contrasting groups because they gave it to spouses of ED nurses.

d.  Construct validity was established and reported by Agervold (2007).


13.   What types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study?  (Select all that apply.)

               a.   The authors developed the Negative Intention Questionnaire (NIQ).

                b.   The authors developed their own questions to ask about demographic information.

c.   Interviews were reportedly used, but the authors do not explain what was included in them.

                d.  The authors used previously developed questionnaires or surveys to measure the study variables.

e.   This study did not use any questionnaires or surveys.


14.   Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study? 

                a.   Yes

                b.   No


Question 15- 16: Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)


15. Which one of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?

                a.   questionnaires / surveys were completed using a survey link / online.

b.   participants were given the pencil and paper questionnaire on enrollment in the study.

c.   questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective participants and returned in a self-

      addressed stamped envelope.

                d.   nurse researchers interviewed the study participants in a focus group.


16.  If there were more than one data collector for the study, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?

                a.   yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.                 

b.   yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.

c.   no, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here.



Question 17 - 19:  Data Analysis. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)

17.  What descriptive statistics were used in this study?  (Select all that apply.)

                a.   mean

                b.   median

                c.   mode

                d.   standard deviation

                e.   z-scores

                f.   percentage distributions


18.  Which one of these inferential statistics was used to examine the data obtained from the subjects?

                a.   Pearson Correlation Coefficient

                b.    t-Test

                c.   Chi-Square

                d.   ANOVA


19.  What is the level of significance (alpha) set at for this study? (Hint: is there an alpha given under the Tables or specifically mentioned in the text of the article?)

                a.   p < .001

b.   p < .05

                b.   p. < .10

                d.   a level of significance was not specifically mentioned by the author.


Question 20-25: Researcher’s Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)


20.  There are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a significant and predicted result about teamwork?  

aThe belief that each team member should spend time and energy to make the team work (AATS) was significantly associated with the TCS item communication.

b.  Older nurses have higher levels of belief in the importance of teamwork than younger nurses.

c.   Nurses were more likely to report observing others being bullied (53%) than to report the direct experience of being bullied (31%) in the past 6 months.

d.   Nurses who work longer shifts (12+ hours) have greater likelihood of observing incivility at work compared to shorter shifts (8-10 hours).


21.  There are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a significant and predicted result about workplace bullying? 

a.  the highest rating for the TCS was highly characteristic and the highest rating for the NIQ was rarely/never

b.  Older nurses are more likely to report witnessing bullying behavior than younger nurses.

c.   Nurses were more likely to report observing others being bullied (53%) than to report the direct experience of being bullied (31%) in the past 6 months.

d.   Nurses who work longer shifts (12+ hours) have greater likelihood of observing incivility at work compared to shorter shifts (8-10 hours).


22.  Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important?

a.   Manager support positively predicts the level of teamwork reported within a unit.

b.   Strong leadership on teams allows a patient care plan to be revised effectively.

c.   Lower levels of decision-making power on teams can result in staff burnout.

d.   Nurse managers can capitalize on these baseline perceptions and attitudes to further develop and maintain effective team performance.


23.  Which statements below would be considered a limitation of the study?

a.   A convenience sample from two hospitals was used without clear inclusion / exclusion criteria.

b.   Very few participants answered all of the questions on all three surveys.

c.   The authors did not make any efforts to discuss the reliability or validity of their surveys.

d.   The authors did not use very many current resources when writing the review of literature.


24.  Which one of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results?

a.   A majority of nurses in this study believed that working as a team was an effective means to provide patient care.

b.   The study results regarding nurses’ perceptions, attitudes and experiences related to teamwork and workplace bullying are consistent with current literature.

c.     A convenience sample of acute care nurses enhances generalizability to nurses working in other environments (ie. long term care or outpatient settings).

d.    The study’s intervention did not yield the expected results and thus cannot be generalized.


25.  Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies?  

a.   Research to discover why older nurses have less compassion satisfaction compared to younger nurses.

b.   Future development of programs to help relieve the strain of caring in ED nurses.

c.   This study demonstrated that a brief, inexpensive family oriented intervention is feasible in the ED.

d.   Additional work is needed to determine potential direction of effects between team variables and dysfunctional behavior such as bullying.

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