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Let’s Bury the 5-Paragraph Essay: Long Live Authentic Writing

I checked out Edutopia’s most popular posts of 2015 this week.

These posts account for over one million page views. They represent the best of what resonated with readers. Yet, there is something interesting about them. Not a single one is five paragraphs. Not one has paragraph after paragraph with a topic sentence, supporting details, and a concluding sentence.
One began with a story. Another launched with a rhetorical question. One set up a scenario. None of them had a clear thesis in the introduction, nor a conclusion that repeated what was established in the introduction.
I say all this because the list represents one sampling of authentic writing.
Out of the hundreds of posts it published this year, these posts captivated, grabbed attention, sparked debate, and were shared all over the net.
Yet none of these posts look like the type of writing that appears on standardized tests. Each defies the format taught in countless classrooms every day.
Blog posts represent just one part of a larger pie. Authentic writing includes reports, reviews, and a whole host of other forms that are produced each day by working adults. But they are an important part of that pie. Roughly 173 million blogs exist, and 1.13 million posts are published each day.
Goals of Writing
I always thought that a primary goal of education was to cultivate young minds to be thoughtful, versatile, and never satiated. The instruction of writing does the exact opposite. It is like so much of what’s wrong in education right now. It standardizes and homogenizes rather than individualizes and differentiates.
Dan Millman, author of 17 books including Way of the Peaceful Warrior: A Book That Changes Lives and The Creative Compass: Writing Your Way from Inspiration to Publication, once said,
“I kind of got more interested in writing after I turned in my last college essay and nobody was going to tell me what kind of academic papers to write anymore. I could write whatever I wanted, and I realized that I actually liked it when I could choose what I would write.”

It is time to torch the five-paragraph essay. It is time to offer our students a chance to write authentically.
Where We Went Wrong
During the Age of Enlightenment, essays were a favored tool of polemicists who aimed at convincing readers of their position. The Frenchman Michel de Montaigne was the first author to describe his work as essays; he used the term to characterize these as “attempts” to put his thoughts into writing. Virginia Woolf believed that “A good essay must have this permanent quality about it; it must draw its curtain round us, but it must be a curtain that shuts us in not out.”
Yet as the essayist and technologist Paul Graham points out where we started going wrong. It coincides with the late 19th-century rise of the industrial model of education.
In 1892 the National Education Association “formally recommended that literature and composition be unified in the high school course.” [4] The ‘riting component of the 3 Rs then morphed into English, with the bizarre consequence that high school students now had to write about English literature– to write, without even realizing it, imitations of whatever English professors had been publishing in their journals a few decades before.
It’s no wonder if this seems to the student a pointless exercise, because we’re now three steps removed from real work: the students are imitating English professors, who are imitating classical scholars, who are merely the inheritors of a tradition growing out of what was, 700 years ago, fascinating and urgently needed work.
Standardized testing has only compounded the problem. By its very definition, to standardize means to make something conform, to make homogenous. And since what gets tested gets taught, all originality, creativity, and authenticity has been sucked out of student writing to standardize it for an exam.
How do we create fascinating and urgently needed work? How do we develop a permanence with our students and their writing that invites the reader behind the curtain to see something?
4 Keys to Authentic Writing
#1 Freedom
What I once did: Assign topics.
What I’m now doing: Not giving topics. I am challenging my students to tell me what they believe is worth writing about on a given subject.
Why I am doing it: It is not about me, it is about them. When I assign topics I am implicitly telling my students what I believe is important and disregarding their thoughts. Their writing will always be disingenuous it is conforming to my train of thinking.   Authenticity occurs when I value their choice of topic, not mine.
#2 Publishing
What I once did: My students wrote for an audience of one — me.
What I’m now doing: My  students are publishing their writing.
Why I am doing it: I do a blogging unit with my students each year because their writing needs to exist beyond the four walls of the classroom. Publishing their writing forces them to consider an audience beyond the teacher. Their peers may see it. They can show it to their parents. Perception is everything to them and knowing that their work will be seen by others, my students spend more on grammar, mechanics, and meaning. This didn’t always happen when it was for my eyes only.
#3 Simpler Rubrics
What I once did: Issue standard rubrics for each assignment with a matrix of 20+ boxes.
What I now do: I invite students to create the rubric with me, creating simpler ones that value originality and clarity.
Why I am doing it: Most rubrics confuse or overwhelm students more than they help them. They rarely deliver their promised precision. Just as standardizing test can compromise the quality of teaching, elaborate rubrics may compromise the quality of writing. Too many result in writing that serves the scoring hierarchy of the rubric rather than the spirit of the assignment, resulting in bland, unoriginal compositions.
#4 Model Style
What I once did: Teach a format.
What I now do: Talk more about style and less about format.
Why I am doing it: Formats confine. They box you in. They limit where you can go. By discussing style, sharing mentor texts of varying styles, I am encouraging my students to be exist beyond those limitations and operate on a higher level. Formats may change but style endures.[bctt tweet=” Formats may change but style endures.”]
Read Part II of this post: Authentic Writing: What It Means and How to Do It in which nine teacher share their understanding of authentic writing and the assignments that lead to it.
I hope you will share your best assignments in the comments section below. I will feature them in a follow up post next week, a roundup of authentic writing assignments, so that other can learn from you and you can learn from others.

Return on Investment (ROI) Analysis in HIT Planning

Description / paper instructions
Determining the (TCO) or total cost of ownership for a strategic information system investment is a critical part of the leaders' role in using technology in a transforming way. The Return on Investment Analysis depends upon reliable estimates of both the capital outlay and ongoing operational costs associated with the initiative over a period of time. This Assignment focuses on outlining both the capital and ongoing operational costs associated with a typical technology investment. You will outline the costs and, as importantly, the assumptions that you used in deriving these financial estimates.

To prepare:
Review the Pro Forma Explanation Material and HIT Program Pro Forma Template in the Learning Resources. (Attachment)

Write an APA style paper, addressing the following elements for the scenario that you chose in Week 3 (Telemedicine for Rural-Based Health Facility) (Attachment). This will also be the scenario used to complete your Final Project. For this Assignment, address the financial element of the project Charter used to plan the acquisition of an HIT solution for the setting of choice. The financial analysis has two parts:

Using the HIT Pro Forma Template provided in your Learning resources, complete the anticipated capital and operating costs of the HIT solution that you are proposing.

Justify the assumptions that you used in your proforma.

Note: Your Assignment should show effective application of triangulation of content and resources to show your conclusion and recommendations.

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DUE DATE: 11:59pm WST Friday 21st October 2016 (Submit via Blackboard)

This assignment requires you to analyse and interpret the data in the table below (i.e. the data from Assessment Two Part One) by completing a series of set tasks. The data was collected from 22 participants, each of whom had their resting heart rate measured and recorded after they had been lying down for 15 minutes. While resting heart rate is generally lower the fitter you are, it can also be influenced by other factors. Hence the participants also had their height and weight measured and recorded, and provided information about their age, gender and smoking status.

The variables in the data are:
Resting Heart Rate The resting heart rate of the participant in beats per minute (bpm)
Age The age of the participant
Gender Whether the participant is male or female
Height The height of the participant in centimetres (cm)
Weight The weight of the participant in kilograms (kg)
Smoking Status Whether the participant is a non-smoker, or whether they smoke
occasionally or regularly

The data relating to these variables for the 22 participants is as follows:
Resting Heart Rate (bpm) Age Gender Height (cm) Weight (kg) Smoking Status
62 18 Male 178 80.3 Non-smoker
70 25 Female 165 57.2 Occasionally
63 63 Male 172.5 75.4 Non-smoker
59 47 Male 185 77.3 Non-smoker
72 50 Female 167 63.2 Occasionally
68 28 Female 155.5 55.1 Non-smoker
69 33 Male 166 65.2 Occasionally
80 39 Female 170 63.1 Regularly
64 38 Male 175 70.3 Non-smoker
70 45 Male 181.5 92.6 Occasionally
75 19 Female 167 57.3 Regularly
67 24 Female 152 53.2 Non-smoker
73 65 Male 165.5 64.3 Regularly
70 58 Female 180.5 62.1 Non-smoker
75 42 Male 185 93.2 Regularly
72 39 Female 173 65.4 Occasionally
71 21 Female 174 82.1 Non-smoker
65 22 Male 190.5 101.4 Non-smoker
81 61 Female 159 58.9 Regularly
57 38 Male 178.5 83.5 Non-smoker
62 53 Female 154 55.3 Non-smoker
67 27 Female 172 64.5 Non-smoker
Use the information provided on the previous page to complete the following tasks (show working where you can, as in some cases this may allow you to obtain partial marks for incorrect solutions, and give all answers to 2 decimal places unless otherwise specified):

1. Display the Gender and Smoking Status variables in a cross-tabulation, and use it to determine what percentage of the male participants smoke.               (5 marks)

2. Create a scatter plot to display the relationship between the Resting Heart Rate and Age variables, then determine the correlation coefficient and comment on the relationship (if any) between the variables.         (5 marks)

3. A follow-up to this study is going to involve the participants recording their heart rate during moderate to intense physical activity. This should be about 70% of the person’s maximum heart rate (i.e. the upper limit of how fast their heart can beat), which can be estimated by subtracting their age from 220. Use this information to complete the following:
a. Write an equation giving a person’s approximate ‘target’ heart rate during moderate to intense physical activity in terms of their estimated maximum heart rate, using T to represent the Target Heart Rate variable and M to represent the Maximum Heart Rate variable. (1 mark)

b. Write an equation giving a person’s estimated maximum heart rate (M) in terms of their age, using A to represent the Age variable. (1 mark)

c. Use the two equations you have created previously to write an equation in slope-intercept form giving a person’s approximate target heart rate (T) during moderate to intense physical activity in terms of their age (A).             (2 marks)

d. Use your equation in c. to determine an approximate target heart rate for the participant who is 18, rounded to the nearest whole number.             (2 marks)

e. Use your equation in c. to determine what the age of a person with a target heart rate of 133bpm should be.             (3 marks)

f. Your equations in a., b. and c. all define what kind of functions? (1 mark)

4. The histogram and box plot below display the distribution of the Resting Heart Rate variable for the participants:

Furthermore, the skewness of this sample is 0.098, while the kurtosis is -0.185. Use this information to complete the following:
a. Explain how you can use the histogram, box plot, skewness and kurtosis to conclude that the Resting Heart Rate variable is normally distributed in this sample.     (4 marks)

b. Given that the sample is normally distributed and has a mean of 68.73bpm and standard deviation of 6.19bpm, determine the probability that a person selected at random from the sample has a Resting Heart Rate greater than 70bpm.     (3 marks)

The data from these participants is going to be used to make predictions for a larger population, and as such can be considered a sample. Use this information to complete the remaining questions:
5. Complete the following:    
a. Calculate the sample standard deviation of the Weight variable, rounded to two decimal places.     (2 marks)

b. This sample standard deviation can be used to estimate the standard deviation for a larger population; what term do we use to refer to such a sample statistic?       (1 mark)

c. The 95% confidence interval for the Age variable is (32.23, 45.50). Explain how you can use it to determine the sample mean of the variable, and determine this sample mean rounded to the nearest whole number.                   (2 marks)

d. Explain how you would interpret the 95% confidence interval provided in c. in terms of the population mean for the Age variable.       (1 mark)

6. Given that the Resting Heart Rate variable is Normally distributed, determine:  
a. Null and alternative hypotheses, for testing whether the population mean for the Resting Heart Rate variable is equal to 68bpm.     (2 marks)

b. What statistical test would be best to use to test these hypotheses?       (1 mark)

c. If the hypothesis test above is conducted with a level of significance of 5%, and the resulting p value is 0.587, what conclusion would this lead the researcher to and why?     (2 marks)

d. What statistical test would be used to test whether the population mean of the Resting Heart Rate variable is the same for non-smokers, occasional smokers and regular smokers?   (1 mark)

e. What statistical test would be used to test whether there is an association between the Resting Heart Rate and Weight variables in the population?       (1 mark)

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Help with Business Ethic– Midterm Examination

Business Ethics – Midterm Examination

Fall 2016
Often times, both in class and in the media, you will hear the term “corporate
culture.” Thus far, we have discussed and analyzed various theories and how the corporate
culture is developed, altered, and maintained.
As future business managers, you may be placed in a situation that requires you to
act as a rudder for the business’ ethical direction. For the examination, there is a fact
pattern that details the business environment you have just entered. You are tasked with
writing the new business code of conduct to help “right the ship” after a slew of missteps
and mishaps, by both upper management and entry level employees.
Please rely on the material in the handout that is found in Week 4 as a Supplemental
Item in Blackboard. Use the format and examples set there.
While you may collaborate with other individuals in class, please note that you must
turn in your own variation. This is very much and individual project.
The call of the question and directions for answering will be found at the end of the
fact pattern.
To: New President of the Board of Directors
From: The “interim” CEO
Welcome to 32 Entertainment, Inc.! We are very excited to have you aboard. As we
discussed in our initial meeting, we drastically need to change the direction of the company
after some very unfortunate events occurred. While we understand that our reputation
may have been bruised by said events, we believe that we can salvage the company as long
as we have the right ethical tone to carry us forward. I have summarized each of our recent
issues to help guide you.
About a year ago, one of our staff accountants discovered a an account labeled
“Atlanta Expenses” that had very large deposits and withdrawals that were not traced to
qualified or detailed expenses. After further investigation, and a private investigator, we
discovered that the funds from said account were being wired to an account with our COO’s
name on it! We have been able to distance ourselves from the COO and the media never got
wind of the account so the public is clueless (as of now). However, more than $375,000.00
went “off the books.” Some of the COO’s closest colleagues as well as other officers of the
company are being questioned. We need to clean that department up!
As you are aware, we have two major stories that seem to be trending in the media.
First, there is the alleged sexual harassment case with Patricia Party, one of our Vice
Presidents, and the junior sales associate Brad Bland. Bland is claiming that after engaging
in a consensual relationship with Party for more than a year, and by the way she is 30 years

his senior, he broke it off. However, he claims that since he broke it off in May of this year,
Party has been calling him day and night, texting him, emailing him nude photos, and even
groping him in the halls, all in an attempt to win him back. He has now filed a lawsuit
against her and the company. He claims that not only was there a violation, but our
company does not have proper training or prevention programs in place.
The other major story is our pollution problem. As you know, we specialize in
plastics. We have been hammered in the media recently for our lack of initiative in
reducing our carbon footprint, particularly with our manufacturing plants in Brazil and
Thailand. One media outlet claims we are “behind the times, antiquated, and just plane
stupid.” We need to change our culture. However, these foreign factories are essential to
keeping are profit margins robust - find a balance!
Lastly, we have struggled in our charitable contributions department. We need to
create a culture of giving, but we don’t have a direction or even a good cause. We need a
philosophy to get behind.
And don’t forget – we are 32 Entertainment, Inc. We sell plastics to the prop houses
for movies and television shows. We employ 2,500 people worldwide and are based out of
Los Angeles, California – where the stars live.
Here is what I need you to do:
1. Create A Code of Conduct that will not only address the specific problems,
but lay the general foundation for a new corporate culture. It needs to be
both generic (broad) and specific to us. We are looking for 8-12 ethical
2. Draft a company mission statement – short and sweet. Have it try and
incorporate the feel from the Code of Conduct.
3. Lastly, I need you to tell me how we are going to implement this. Give me
details on how all 2,500 people will be trained, reminded, and eventually
start believing in the corporate shift in our ethical tone.
4. The final product should be somewhere between 10 and 20 pages double
Good Luck!

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Help With my accounting homework

  1. Discuss the differences and similarities of common stock, preferred stock, and treasury stock.  How is each issued by a company? 
  2. Assume that you are an investor interested in purchasing stock.  What are some ways you could find information on a company and its stock offerings?
  3. Discuss the differences and similarities in issuing bonds and stocks.  What are the benefits to a company of issuing one over another?
  4. As an investor, what are the pros and cons of investing in either?  Why would you choose one over the other?
  5. Under what circumstances does a company prepare consolidated financial statements? Provide an example of a consolidated financial statement and a brief explanation of the parent company and its subsidiaries.
  6. Discuss the three primary activities on the Statement of Cash Flows.  Provide examples of activities for each category
  7. Discuss the difference between the direct and indirect method of reporting cash flows. Why is the indirect method used instead of the direct method for reporting?
  8. Managerial decision making is based on controlling cost which is classified by five categories: behavior, traceability, controllability, relevance, and function.  Using these categories, provide examples of each and discuss the determining factor(s) to consider when deciding to assign a cost to products or services. 

The differentiation of self

The differentiation of self-construct is a developmental construct from the Murray Bowen’s Family Systems Theory and comprise of both the intra and the interpersonal dimensions.  Intrapersonal dimensions connote the capacity to regulate affects whereas the interpersonal dimension refers the ability to negotiate the relational dialectic of togetherness and independence (Robinson, 1995).  The differentiation of self-has shown a consistent positive relationship with a variety of different signs of well-being.  Therefore, this empirical notion supports Bowen’s theoretical affirmation that a person’s level of symptomatology and the relational distress differ depending on the person’s extent of differentiation of self (Perinbanayagam, 2000).
            As a progressive process, self-differentiation encapsulates the internal interplay between separation (autonomy) and togetherness (connection) in its progress towards evolving goals.  The pathway to adulthood is often a complex process that is paved with challenges and difficulties. Differentiation of self-underlines the primal task that every individual faces in this regard. The Bowen theory emerges as one of the few comprehensive theories explaining from a multigenerational and systemic perspective the psychological development. It is the theory upon which the foundation of family therapy stands. Therefore, it is distinct from other theoretical approaches to individual psychotherapy.
Background information
 The essential ingredient in Bowen theory differentiation of self emerges as the critical variable towards mature development and the achievement of psychological health. In the theory, the construct is viewed and defined differently. It is regarded as the degree to which an individual has the potential to balance intellectual and emotional functioning and maintain autonomy and intimacy is relationships (Carver & Scheier, 1978).
            Intrapsychic level view the differentiation as the ability of an individual to interject and differentiate feelings from thoughts and choose between being guided by either intellect or emotion. A high level of differentiation equips an individual with the ability to be calm and have the ability to maintain logic in reasoning. Flexibility, adaptability and the ability to cope with stress are some characteristics of differentiated individual both at the rational and emotional levels while maintaining autonomy (Hardy, 2013). On the contrary, emotional outburst and reactiveness appears to be the character of poorly differentiated persons. They find it inherently difficult to remain calm in their response to the emotionality of others. They get trapped in the emotional world and the decisions made are primarily based on what feels right as opposed to what is right.
            The differentiation of self within relationships has certain attributes such an individual sense of their own limit with a clear understanding of where their abilities end and someone else begin. Courage and clarity and the ability to stay in course with a strong spiritual and emotional stamina are also other attributes. Resisting the impulse to attack and always staying connected are also some other characteristics of self-differentiated individuals (Storek & Furnham, 2013). A differentiated individual frees themselves from their family’s process in defining themselves. Therefore, one has different opinions and values as opposed to their family members. Any conflict is analyzed calmly and a different response is given in the future.
Fusion and emotional cutoff do not prevail in a scenario where differentiated individuals are overwhelmed by family and emotional relationships. Better psychological adjustment is the preamble of differentiated individuals as they are well adjusted based on the situation at hand. The level of differentiation has various consequences to an individual such as chronic anxiety that is predominant to less differentiated people. As a construct, self-differentiation may be used to predict the level of an individual’s IQ and also the emotional stability of the person.
Any research has to be deemed as either varied or invalid on the basis of the objectives, aims and hypothesis under study. In this case, the objective of carrying out the research lies with the need to evaluate the differentiation of self and determine its validity from using different parameters. From a theoretical framework, the differentiation of self depicts how people react and respond to different situations and circumstances posed by demands in life. The reaction is relative to the pursuit of goals on a continuum ranging from the most adaptive to the least adaptive. The adaptive approach and corresponding variation depends on a variety of factors that are interconnected such as the solid self which is a part of an individual that does not curve nor is it negotiable for compromises in a relationship (Self, 2002). A good example is a person who is not swayed by fads and opinions, but rather opts to be grounded in their belief and principles.
Some investigations conducted on the self-differentiation have been in the university-based samples (KOSEK, 1998).  The setting was appropriate, as the differentiation of self is a development construct associated with an essential interpersonal negotiation of a family origin.  Therefore, individual relationships and interpersonal association of the lived experience typically takes place during the stage when one attains adulthood.  Supporting the validity of the conducted research, a person’s extent of differentiation of self or the initial process of defining self occasionally associated with the act of leaving home (Storek & Furnham, 2013).  Followed by living an independent life out of the control of one’s family of origin.  Hence, the whole process is associated with the emergence of adulthood considered a defining key in this construct (Perinbanayagam, 2000).
            Age is used as a variable in the definition of self-differentiation. It offers the construct a validation evidence of differentiation of self. The variable is given more weight by studying older adults and adolescents.  Families also regulate how people think and behave and as such, the definition also outlines some aspects of the family that correlate with the differentiation of self.  The susceptibility to a group think varies between individuals and the pressure exerted by the group towards conformity also varies outlining the differences in self-differentiation (Robinson, 1995). Less development of an individual differentiation means more impact from externalities as opposed to more developed individuals. In addition, such individuals exercise less control and a passive influence on the functioning of other individuals in the group or the family. Poorly differentiated individuals have a tendency of dependence especially on the approval of others and thus they have no voice of their own. They are more likely to adjust or change their thinking or saying in attempt to please others. Conformity is key in this case where the individuals align themselves relative to thinking as a group as opposed to having independent thoughts.
Construct validation in self-differentiation is an extensive process. It is important as an ongoing validity judgment derived from the integration of evaluating the cumulative evidence of internal structure and the external correlations.  The differentiation of the self, therefore, is considered in the light of an evolving theoretical framework (Lampis, 2015). Intrapsychic and interpersonal components are captured by the framework. From history, theorists of transgenerational describe family and individual functioning relative to the intergenerational and interpersonal family processes. Some prevalent self-report instruments that are developed within this tradition include the differentiation of self-scale, the emotional cutoff scale and the family of origin scale. The different parameters have an influence in impacting the range of components of differentiation at an interpersonal level. The self-scale is of paramount importance as it outlines the separation between emotional maturity, emotional autonomy and maturity.
            A significant proportion of the validation evidence comprises of research that examines the external structure as well as the discriminant and the convergence of associations between the differentiations of self.  The intentional efforts in assessing the internal structure at the initial scale development also comprise of the undertakings.  Although the efforts have been from the exploratory factor analytic approach considered as the first point in the ongoing construct validation process followed by confirmatory factor analysis with some multiple independent samples (Mezo & Short, 2012).
The study is organized chronologically to determine the correlation of the differentiation of self to the formulated definition and with specific interest on the Bowen theory. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the ongoing validation relating to the Bowen theory construct of differentiation of self.  Understanding self-differentiation is important in determining the identity of an individual relative to their family background. The rationale for conducting validity study on the premise involved in the construct validation does not generalize to the populations or the settings varying from those derived.  An explicit validation studies, therefore, is relevant in the cultural generalizability and in determining the internal structural validity of the scale in use (Mezo & Short, 2012).
 The rationale for conducting construct validation study falls under the clinical utility of differentiation of self.  The emergence of differentiation of self as a key indicator of the effectiveness of clinical work with certain individuals and couples highlights the need for confirming its factor structure.  A reliable and a valid clinical assessment of the capacity for the affect regulation and interdependent relating do direct not only the intervention efforts but also involves the facilitation of the examination of the treatment progress.  Therefore, the intra and the interpersonal dimension of differentiation of self-demonstrated the associations with the clinical outcome of one's wellbeing (Mezo & Short, 2012).  
The authenticity of any framework or model is determined through its conformity or nonconformity to a given set of standards in the model analysis and evaluation specification. In measuring the differentiation of self construct, the participants comprised of 749 students made up of a large state university in the South.  They fluctuated in age from eighteen to fifty having a mean age of 21.07.  The sample consisted of 56.1% female and 43.9% male.  The participants are comprised of 70.8% White American while 21.4% comprised of Black American, the 4.0% of the mixed race, 1.5% Hispanic, 0.9% Asian or Asian American and 0.7% Native American, and 0.8% other (Elieson, 2000).
Differentiation of self-inventory revised is a 46-item, comprising of a self-report measure used to evaluate Bowen’s construct relating to differentiation.  Two of the subscales gauge the intrapersonal aspect of differentiation as the other two subscales assesses the interpersonal dimension.  The higher scores reflect the superior distinction.  The participants asked to proportion how accurate the items concerned them on a scale from one to six.  The sample items noted a point of not getting upset on things that one cannot change and on occasions that things go wrong, a talk on them makes things worse (Perinbanayagam, 2000).
The measure also uses the parentification questionnaire that consists of 30-item self-report gadget that retrospectively weighs three dimensions of parentification.  That is, expressive or emotional parentification, instrumental parentification, and perceived injustice of the parentification course (Shepherd & Perinbanayagam, 2002).  Of the thirty items, ten relate to instrumental parentification, ten concern expressive parentification while the last ten perceived unfairness.  The applicants rated on how accurate their accounts are on a five-point Likert scale from one indicating, “Strongly disagree” to five showing, “Strongly agree.”  Higher scores replicated greater parentification and a perceived unfairness.  For this research, scores from three subscales demonstrated instrumental Parentification of 82 while 85 indicated expressive parentification and 90 as perceived injustice (Mezo & Short, 2012).
The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was used to evaluate the contestants’ level of mental health symptoms.  The Brief Symptom Inventory of a 53-item self-report inventory considered reflecting psychological indication patterns of the psychiatric and general community populations.  The study used Global Severity Index of Brief Symptom Inventory.  The psychometric properties of the Brief Symptom Inventory plus subscale scores are excellent measures.  The Cronbach’s alphas for nine sign sets and global indices that range from 71 to 85 of the participants responded to the questionnaire (Storek & Furnham, 2013).  They responded by the means of a five-point Likert scale as from zero to four at the extreme.  The calculation of the Global Security Index scores is by a summation of the 53 items, and then dividing by 53 (Perinbanayagam, 2000).
The differentiation of the self-validation study 231 Cronbach’s alpha for Global Security Index was 97, specifically for this study sample.  Following the Institutional Review Board approval, the recruited contributors took part in the study investigating the link between childhood characters and responsibilities and the adult psychological functioning.  With the authorization of the university professors, the approached participants in the undergraduate-level classrooms reached by email.  It was by an administration of an electronic survey packet using a web-based functionality.  The electronic invitation encompassed a description of the study, a direct through a link to the electronic survey, and informed consent form (Perinbanayagam, 2000). A demographic questionnaire and measures mentioned above was used.  The extra course credit provided as an inducement and a compensation for taking part in the study.
The factor structure of differentiation of self-inventory revised identified in the study.  The data on 1,375 contestants initially examined for the missing data, outliers, and instances of normality, the participants with significant missing data and cases that involve univariate outliers and extreme multivariate outliers based on Mahalanobis distance test.  It identified an analysis from that resulted in a sample of 1,279 participants (Storek & Furnham, 2013).  To obtain a proportionally diverse sample for the existing study, an arbitrary sample of 50% of White American members removed from the analysis leading to a final sample of 749 participants (Perinbanayagam, 2000).
Also, many of the variables displayed both the univariate skew, for instance, skewness critical ratios greater than 2.5 or less and univariate kurtosis and key ratios greater than 2.5 or less than 2.5; the given multivariate non-normality, multivariate kurtosis critical ratio identified greater than 5.00; and a problematic skew and kurtosis values (Roberts & McGinty, 1995).
Furthermore, under non-normal situations, the comparative fit index aims to produce benefits that modestly underestimated.  In light of these interpretations concerning non-normal data, determination of acceptable model fit was bases on a composite picture of the fit indices.  More explicitly, the ratios and guidelines for influential acceptable fit used in a standardized root-mean-square residual the root mean square error of approximation and the corresponding probability of a close fit (Perinbanayagam, 2000).
Measuring the validity constructs of convergent is essential in determining the differentiation of self. An essential test in measuring the validity of this constructs is the depression anxiety test scales. There are three measurement scales that are evaluated using this test. The three major variables that are considered in carrying out the test are stress, depression and anxiety that are applied by use of the seven items per scale. In an attempt of achieving a better fit, the model specification in consideration of standardized residuals greater than 4.00 structure and coefficients of less than 40.  Response is measured using the frequency of experience ranging from the severity to non-severity of the experience. The presence of unnecessary parameters reflected by significant, negative standardized residuals that suggest problematic indicators that are need of dropping. On the other hand, items with large and negative standard residuals were examined relative with their structure coefficients. The structure factors were deemed as non-significant in terms in comparison to practical significance and the problematic indicators dropped (Elieson, 2000). The examination of the structural factors coincided with the analysis of the correlation between the latent constructs and the cross-loading coefficients.
The study seems to offer two crucial implications for family and couple practitioners, predominantly when working with evolving adult clients.  First, the support for the use of differentiation of self-inventory revised in clinical assessment.  The second implication is the foundation for theoretical integration, which may enhance clinical flexibility and effectiveness.  The psychometric information in the study suggests that differentiation of self-inventory revised offers researchers and the clinicians a psychometrically sound degree of the construct of differentiation of self (Perinbanayagam, 2000).
 As built on the result this study, the recommendation to use the 46 of the item differentiation of self-inventory revised full-scale score as a general assessment of a person’s intra and interpersonal means of controlling affect.  It is possible with the attention to functional or dysfunctional relational ways of doing so (Shepherd & Perinbanayagam, 2002).  Furthermore, the study suggests that the use of Differentiation of self-inventory revised subscale in combination with the explicit relational subscale.  It could provide efficient yet more comprehensive means of assessing the differentiation of self that provides direction for and helps elucidate the modality of treatment (Elieson, 2000).
The assessment of the construct of emotional reactivity can also aid the clinician in the specialist care of the therapeutic alliance given the finding that explicit relational subscale scores were a significant correlate of the alliance scores.  The research has also demonstrated that differentiation of self-holds the potential to be a relevant construct when assessing treatment effectiveness.  Some explicit relational subscale scores projected male partners’ improvement in couple therapy as restrained by relationship (Roberts & McGinty, 1995).
 In evaluating treatment effectiveness in both individual and family treatment, predominantly researchers and clinicians are interested in evaluating progress in affect regulation and interdependent relationship.  The clinical prominence of addressing affect management complications has drawn substantial attention.  Affect dysregulation appears to underlie and be present in several types of pathology and emotion-focused therapies.  They seem to and intervene in affect regulation processes that have demonstrated clinical effectiveness with a range of presenting concerns (Roberts & McGinty, 1995).
In conclusion, there are two emotional processes that are captured by emotional captured clinical interventions. The underlining need for these processes is the promotion of positive affect through prosocial relations and resolving negative emotions. The processes are outlined relative to Bowen’s ideas of intra and interpersonal differentiation. Therefore, differentiation of self emerges as a construct that provides a foundation for a clinical framework that is founded on Bowen theory and the interventions based on emotions.
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Hardy, G. (2013). Academic Self-Concept: Modeling and Measuring for Science. Res Sci Educ, 44(4), 549-579. doi:10.1007/s11165-013-9393-7
KOSEK, R. (1998). SELF-DIFFERENTIATION WITHIN COUPLES. PR, 83(5), 275. doi:10.2466/pr0.83.5.275-279
Lampis, J. (2015). Does partners’ differentiation of self predict dyadic adjustment?. J. Fam. Ther., n/a-n/a. doi:10.1111/1467-6427.12073
Mezo, P., & Short, M. (2012). Construct validity and confirmatory factor analysis of the Self-Control and Self-Management Scale. Canadian Journal Of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 44(1), 1-8. doi:10.1037/a0024414
Perinbanayagam, R. (2000). The presence of self. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
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Self, P. (2002). Material presence and the mystery of the object. Arq, 6(02). doi:10.1017/s1359135502001653
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Storek, J., & Furnham, A. (2013). Gender, g , Gender Identity Concepts, and Self-Constructs as Predictors of the Self-Estimated IQ. The Journal Of Genetic Psychology, 174(6), 664-676. doi:10.1080/00221325.2013.772501

The Negative Effects of the Invention of Genetically Modified Crops to the People

The Negative Effects of the Invention of Genetically Modified Crops to the People
I.                   Introduction
Food is a basic need for the survival of human life. A major issue currently prevalent in the world is the presence of genetically modified foods. These are specially designed foods whose genetic material is altered in an effort of increasing the quality of the product and the productivity levels. There are major pros and cons associated with the proliferation of the foods around the world (Carman, 16). The question of whether the benefits overshadow the challenges are predominant. The essence of this research is to evaluate the two sides and bring to light the challenges as a prevalent fact that has been overlooked. Genetically modified organisms (or GMOs) are the resulting organisms that have been manipulated artificially in the laboratories though genetic engineering (Jayaraman and Jia, 12). The aim is to produce more food at a short time frame and increase the longevity of the foods in the shelves in an effort of feeding the human race. The genetic modification process involves creating a combination of animals, plants, bacteria and even the viral genes which otherwise would not occur through traditional breeding methods. The safety, ethical concerns and potential risks associated with the foods becomes a global concern which lays the basis for this paper in evaluating the negative effects of GMOs to people.
II.                Background
Historically, the study of genes from a scientific perspective begun as early as the 1860s. During this time, an Australian monk Gregory Mendel used the systematic crossing of garden peas.  The concept of gene was introduced as a hereditary unit.  Eight years later, the efforts were emphasized by the discovery of DNA by Friedrich Meischer, who was a German chemist (Carman, 20). However, there were opposition for the discovery as proteins were thought by scientist to be the basis for genetics. The crisis was resolved in 1944 when Oswald Avery clarified the primary carrier of molecular information as the DNA with the findings being clarified in 1952.  Gene splicing was later introduced in 1972 and the sequences were transferable into bacteria and other cells such as those of yeast. 1973 had a remarkable change in the field of DNA after a graduate student from the university of Stanford medical school provided the notion of man-made DNA known as rDNA (Aris and Leblanc, 15). In 1975, a group of intellectuals ranging from biologists, lawyers and doctors held a conference known as the Asilomar conference to formulate guidelines for the safe use of genetically engineered DNA. In 1980, the first GMO patent was issued and two years later the first genetically engineered bacteria hit the market and was approved by the FDA. The technology of gene splicing entered the food industry in 1990 after the approval of a GMO rennet by the FDA.
 According to statement by the FDA published in 1992, genetically engineered foods are not inherently dangerous and as such they do not require special regulation. The process of genetically engineered foods accept was drastically being accepted with France approving tobacco as the first European union genetically engineered crop in 1994. A convention was held in Montréal Canada, on biological diversity. During this time, 130 countries with representatives in the convention approved the biosafety protocol where GMOs were to be labelled in the market (Aris and Leblanc, 17).  The need for the labelling was to reduce the existing difference between farmers of natural foods and those producing genetically modified products. Major agricultural states have adopted GMOs with soybeans, being the highly contaminated food ingredients. As of 2008, a report released by the USDA indicated that approximately 92% of the crop planted in the United States contained GMO varieties. The case is also proliferating for corn with ranges of 86% to 95% in states such as Nebraska and South Dakota respectively. Some other crops that are prone to contamination are papaya, sugar beets, canola, Alfalfa, cotton and Zucchini (Aris and Leblanc, 20). Other parts of the world are not left behind as the need to cover the increasing food demand has made farmers adopt a more reliable, cheap and convenient means of production. The prevalent challenges to the full implementation of the crops are eminent due to ethical, social, political and security reasons on the adoption of the plant.
III.             The two groups of GMO products
There are two groups of genetically modified organisms. First, there are those products that are in commercial production. These products are termed as high-risk as they have a high degree of becoming GMOs. Since the products are in commercial production, the ingredients that are derived from them are subject to testing each time prior to being used. The testing is carried out in non-GMO project verified products (Jayaraman and Jia, 27). Some of the ingredients that are derived from this class of GMO products are ascorbic, citric and amino acids, ethanol, natural and artificial flavorings, vitamin C, sodium ascorbate, sodium citrate, sucrose, vitamins and yeast products among others. The second group of GMO products are monitored crops which are defined as crops with known or suspected contamination (Domingo, 22). Such crops have a cross pollination with genetically modified relatives in the commercial production sector. Testing is done regularly in an effort of assessing risk and the crops are moved to the high-risk category if contamination is inherent. Some crops that lie in this category are rice, flax, and wheat among others. From the two areas, it is evident that money is the underlining factor that makes the goods to change from one category to the other. High demand leads to commercial production and the need to meet the demand encourages the use of GMOs (Bakshi, 12). Evaluating the two groups emphasizes on the need for the ethical value that is associated with the production of crops.
IV.             The effects of GMOs to the society
The impact of GMOs is evident in the society both at positive and negative realms alike. Agricultural practices that increased the emission of greenhouse gases have reduced. With the introduction of GM foods, additional carbon storage in the soil is achieved due to reduced tillage. In addition, the use of pesticide spraying has reduced since the crops are resistant to diseases and hence a reduced environmental impact that was initially associated with insect sides and herbicides. Countries that have a high population such as china have the ability to cater for the food demand of their nation internally (Jeniifer, 16). The effort is achieved through the high production levels of GMs and thus economic stability is achieved at a reduced cost. Resource poor and developing countries are able to raise their standards of living through adopting GMOs. The average levels of benefits are high in developing countries mainly due to technology gains. The benefits accrued by families cannot be sidelined as poor families have the ability of catering for their families and achieving food sustainability. However, the cons in this area are more compared to the benefits. Children require nutrients for proper growth and development and GMs do not offer this and thus a danger in building organs and tissues in kids. Allergies are another challenge posed by GMs to kids due to the presence of toxins, and allergens in the products. With ingredients of soy and corn being dominated by GMs, children are exposed to a high risk of consuming GMs compared to adults (Bakshi, 25). GMOs make foods readily available due to their ability to resist diseases, harsh weather climates such as extreme cold and heat and less need for pesticides and herbicides. One challenge arises here, should the need for sustainability be achieved at the expense of children health?
V.                The negative impacts of the GMO products
GMOs can be seen as impacting negatively on the natural order of things in the universe. The essence of universalism is to encourage biological diversity. However, the cross breeding and the genetic modification of plants and animals negatively affects this diversification since the combination of the genes brings a halt to the biological diversification. The independence that food crops enjoy prior to cross breeding is eliminated once their DNA is altered (Domingo, 7). As such GMOs negatively impacts on the sovereignty of food crops as far as patents are concerned. In the case of patenting, the food crops cannot enjoy sovereignty on the basis that their genes are distributed across multiple platforms (Lammerts Van Bueren et al., 5). The farming of GMOs is relatively different from the traditional process. Other than advocating for tilling the land, the process advocates for the use of herbicides and pesticide control due to the rigidity and ability of the crop to be resistant. Therefore, the natural order of carrying out agricultural process is altered with the claim being held high for the use of technology as opposed to using traditional methods. The final product is readily available and of high quality. However, the production span and the quality of the product should not be emphasized at the expense of other shortcomings associated with the product. For example, the products are high in toxins, carcinogens, allergens and have nutritional deficiencies. It is worth noting that the aim of producing food is not only to sustain hunger, but also for nutritional value (Bakshi, 22). It is the nutritional value of foods that keeps diseases away and ensures a healthy life. Nutrients in food are of paramount importance as they strengthen the body prior, during and before infections.
The GMO technology keeps on changing as opposed to the traditional methods of cultivation and farming. Thus, farmers are required to keep tabs of the changes being incorporated which is not only cumbersome, but also poses a challenge to keep up with the evolving technology. Consumers are also not aware of the change introduced especially in different food ingredients. The need to be informed of the changes in the field as it pertains to which ingredients have changed is arguably a challenge to consumers. Modern lifestyle is characterized by rapid changes and therefore, people are not keen of keeping track of what they consume. The impact of the foods is thus transmitted over the food chain.
VI.             Remedies for GMOs and their effects
The cost of purchasing GMO seeds is expensive and unlike traditional crops, they have to be purchased every season. The effect is suicide for small scale farmers who do not have the potential to acquire this technology. For this reason, GMOs should be discouraged in favor of natural production and farming methods (Jayaraman and Jia, 15). The approach should be done as a premise of protecting the local produce who is dedicated to providing affordable a nutritious products. Gene diversification should be encouraged but not genetically engineered in the lab. A more favorable approach such as natural cross-breeding should be adopted. Doing so will guarantee the provision of quality and nutritious products. Since the production of GMOs encourages the use of herbicides and pesticides, traditional means of tilling and weeding should be encouraged to ensure soil aeration and prolonged sustainability (Domingo, 7). GMOs are patented and thus the producers have an upper hand in the industry compared to traditional farmers. A way to reverse this is through revoking patents and privileges to the producers thus discouraging their production. The revocation process also guarantees a fair competition in the production of farm products. Once the remedies are enforced in favor of natural cultivation and agricultural practices, more nutritious, affordable and health compliant products will dominate the market.
VII.          Conclusion
There are potential merits of GMOs especially in solving global hunger through increasing yields and reducing dependence of traditional forms of cultivation. Environmental protection and preservation is also an equivalence of the advantages that the production process offers. However, the challenges are also predominant in the regulation, safety testing, food labelling and compliance with international policies and standards (Lammerts Van Bueren et al., 13). To some, genetic engineering is the future and a technology that provides irrefutable benefits should not be discarded. However, the opinion of this research is that despite the advantages posed by a technology, the side effects should not be overlooked. Caution has to be exercised to avoid falling into a death trap that impacts human health at the expense of quality food production. 
Works cited
Aris, Aziz, and Samuel Leblanc. 'Maternal And Fetal Exposure To Pesticides Associated To Genetically Modified Foods In Eastern Townships Of Quebec, Canada'. Reproductive Toxicology31.4 (2011): 528-533. Web.
Bakshi, Anita. "Potential Adverse Health Effects of Genetically Modified Crops ." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health (2003): 211–225.
Carman, J. Is GM Food Safe to Eat? (2011). In: Hindmarsh R, Lawrence G, editors. Recoding Nature Critical Perspectives on Genetic Engineering. Sydney: UNSW Press, 82-93.
Domingo, José L. 'Toxicity Studies Of Genetically Modified Plants: A Review Of The Published Literature'. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 47.8 (2007): 721-733. Web.
Jayaraman K, and Jia H. (2013). GM phobia spreads in South Asia. Nature Biotechnology 30: 1017–1019.
Jennifer, C. (2007).Illegal GMO releases and corporate responsibility: Questioning the effectiveness of voluntary measures. Ecological economics. 66 (2–3), 348–358.
Lammerts Van Bueren, E.T. et al. 'Organic Agriculture Requires Process Rather Than Product Evaluation Of Novel Breeding Techniques'. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 54.4 (2007): 401-412. Web. 18 June 2015.

Jayaraman, Killugudi, and Hepeng Jia. 'GM Phobia Spreads In South Asia'. Nat Biotechnol 30.11 (2012): 1017-1019. Web.

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