AN ASSESSMENT OF ISSUES OF ADVENTURE TOURISM IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


Abstract

Tourism can be evaluated in a number of different dimensions. Sustainable tourism however must be able to meet social and economic expectations of an organization or the nation. This paper analyses the characteristics of adventure tourism, a proper understanding of the activities that are classified as adventure tourism is detailed. Understanding adventure tourism and differentiating it from other forms of tourism involves an understanding of it participants, requirements, and market performance. After this, an analysis of the challenges that face sustainability in the tourism sector is evaluated. The findings pave way for provisions of recommendations on how to regulate and promote the industry. Current trends in the industry also pave way for future predictions on the performance of the sector.

Adventure tourism is among the leading trends in tourism industry. In developed and developing countries alike, this trend seems to be among the leading and most lucrative investment in the tourism industry. Adventure tourism has different meanings to different individuals. For example, some perceive adventure as leisure time that involves activities such as hiking, biking tours or even swimming. However, in summation, adventure tourism involves exploration or travel which carries certain difficulties and risks. The delineation and scope of the adventure tourism concept is still a subject of debate among tourism scholars (Bramwell and Lane, 1993, pp. 1—5, Walle, 1997 and Weber, 2001). There are a wide variety of stakeholders in this industry that make it complex. A majority of these stakeholders are suppliers from the mainstream tourism industry. As a result, this sector is composed of accommodation operators as well as equipment manufacturers. The robustness of this industry can be attributed to the activities of the different individuals who specialize in tour operations. Among all types of tourism, adventure tourism is the most popular and promising (Ahuja, 2011).
Adventure Tourism may be defined as a leisure activity that takes place in an unusual, exotic, remote, or wilderness destinations and tends to be associated with high levels of involvement and activity by the participants, most of it outdoors (Thompson Rivers University, 2013). According to the ATTA report (2011), adventure tourism is one of the fastest growing segments in the travel industry with recent estimates based on consumer surveys indicating 17% growth from 2009 - 2010. However, the report (ATTA, 2011) also indicates that the sustainability and profitability of adventure tourism will depend on a coordinated effort between the industry, government, local communities, and project supporters. These actors will need to take a development approach uniquely tailored to the local, political, economic, social, and environmental landscape. This research introduces and analyses the various social, political, economic and cultural challenges that impact the tourism industry with a specific view on adventure tourism. There are fundamental components of adventure tourism that will be analysed. Among this are the various stakeholders in the industry and the roles they play as well as their impact to the sustainability of the industry. Other than this, various typologies are put across to help understand the nature as well as the different components of adventure tourism. This is based on the fact that nature plays a vital role in the development and growth of this industry. Therefore, natural factors that impact nature in a negative way have a negative impact to the industry either directly or indirectly.
Individuals must adopt and embrace adventure as an attitude in order to discover and utilize their unique potential Boyd and Others, 2002, pp. 211--233). With the introduction and enhancement of the industry with new and modern technology, this industry has potential and is inevitably promising as the leading sector in the tourism industry. This makes it an interesting area of study and research based on its greenness and unexploited potential. However, it is also among the risky sectors in the industry and these calls for caution during the investment and promotion of sustainable development. Developing countries are leading in terms nature preservation as opposed to developed countries (Bourdeau and Corneloup et al., 2004, pp. 101--116). However, with the introduction of modern technology the balance is slowly shifting as technology is being utilized to harness and protect nature.

The rise of United States from a defenceless new nation to a place of international fame


The Growth of American Power
Introduction
The foreign ideology and policy of the United States that came into existence after independence and the World War 1 fascinated a great attention of the several generations of historians (Zavodnyik).  Each intent of these historians giving an outline relation of the early era of the policy that is currently existing. At first instance, historians saw a predetermined, celebratory march toward world power by an honest people. Accounts shifted to a decidedly less triumphal mode, with the stress being laid on the lapse into national separation and inactivity after the gallant era of the fight for independence (Smith). This gave rise to the recent move in which historians have drawn attention to the tensions of superiority and apprehension that ran through the 1st century and a half of American foreign relations (Zavodnyik). Coercion of natural Americans, deception, and influence by the political class, and an apparently unquenchable hunger for land and extraneous markets top a list of dislikeable features defining 19th-century development (Shea).
Today the vestige of deterioration is in the air (Shea). The American military giant facades side-tracking, perhaps even spiking, societal and economic complications at home as well as hesitations about its impending role in the world (Shea). Of late even more awake to the fact that great powers cannot forever tolerate their power, we are perhaps ready to look anew commencements of the great cycle the era during which the US rose with astounding rapidity from defenceless new nation to a place of international fame (Zavodnyik).
The noticeable opening fact for clarifying the upswing of the US as a great power is the base of material wealth that Americans were capable of shaping in a relatively short time (Shea). Grabbing the prospects generated by the British-dominated international economy. Americans benefited a blossoming foreign trade, principally in agricultural products and raw materials (Zavodnyik). Accrued wealth went into a native industry whose growth had by 1830 established the US in 6th place among industrial powers (Graff). By the 1890s, American industrial production was 2nd. In 1900, for instance, iron and steel fabrication approximately totalled the joint figure for Britain and Germany. By 1914, the US had far-off surpassed all the chief supremacies in national as well as per capita income. Britain, the neighbouring contender, had only one-third the national revenue and two-thirds the per capita income. On the eve of WW1 the national incomes of all the European supremacies United including Russia, outdone that of the US by only a small brim (Shea). By then US Navy ranked 3rd in the world, just behind the British and the German navies (Zavodnyik).
While inner progresses were critical to the American victory story, changes in the global set were also significant (Zavodnyik). The persistent Anglo-French skirmish for the international dominion positioned major hindrances in the way the American enlargement between 1776 and 1885 (Zavodnyik). First as a colony, then as a supposedly self-governing state. Americans pursued to make worthy on their assertion of independence, defend their business, and secure their regional control in the face of British majestic affectations and repeated international predicaments (Shea). Even so, from the start Americans were capable of alluring benefit from Europe’s agony (Zavodnyik). Locked in opposition to each other, the European muscles were constrained in their transactions with the US by the broad Atlantic, partial resources, and war-weary residents. Where mediation failed, policy makers could try robust options: intimidating an alliance with one European supremacies against its enemy, snatching feebly defended territories of distant European opponents or, in extremity, resorting to equipped force- and thereby taking advantage of fighting on the home ground (Shea).

Airport Apron and Taxiway Control System

Airport Apron and Taxiway Control System
Introduction
Air traffic has witnessed a tremendous change and fast growth in recent years. As a result, a continuous management and improvement of existing systems has to be done in an effort of avoiding congestion (Brooker, 2002). Application of new systems has to be done ensuring they support ground controllers and do not increase the workload. New systems aimed at enhancing the decision-making process in airports have been proposed to be implemented as the future of Air Traffic Control. Systems and procedures are intended for providing control, routing, execution and movement as the basic functions. The XPR tool, for example, is well known for the capability of planning and routing rules (Stratton, 1974). In the routing phase, a particular route is established for each aircraft, and it is accompanied by the planning phase that determines the start and end time of the routing path. Some essential features of the XPR tool include but are not limited to a detailed apron model that is the subject of this research. Aprons are areas defined on an aerodrome that are intended for services such as loading and offloading passengers and cargo. The ATC does not supervise the apron area. During heavy traffic, apron management services are provided.
Purpose of the research and rationale for the study
The study provides a refined description of the apron model and how it works. Concepts and operations related to the taxiway and apron management process will be evaluated in detail. This will be synthesized using a detailed operational description (DOD) that aims at refining and clarifying the high-level mode of performance of aprons (Brooker, 2002). Specific features such as the time to get off-block or on the block will be evaluated. The model described in this study will further evaluate and determine the mean grounds speeds that are mainly reported in regulations. In addition, the paths from the stands to the apron will be determined. During the evaluation time, safety and data security concerns will be the issues of concern in the evaluation process.
Architecture of the apron model
To understand the functionality of the apron model, a review will be carried out that objectively outlines the architecture of an apron model. This will increase understanding on how the aircraft systems work, their control and how they influence the stability of air travel. A shortcoming of the current systems will be compared with the proposed model. To achieve a solid ground for the performance of the model, a simulation approach will be carried out that outlines the different performance metrics of the system (Stratton, 1974). The single aircraft model will be considered for purposes of research in this study. The different parameters that influence the travel time in this model such as the stand applicable, the runaway in use and the category wake of the aircraft will be considered and synthesized in detail. Airplane conflicts will also be determined, and the use of mathematical models will enhance the credibility of the research.
Results discussion and conclusion
Real flight timetables will be analyzed, and the results compared. The result will influence the conclusion and recommendation section on how Airport Apron and Taxiway control systems can be implemented to enhance the efficiency of the airport from offloading to reducing congestion with minimum control and supervision. In addition, the influence regarding the decision of the system in airports will be enhanced.
References
Brooker, P. 2002. Future Air Traffic Management: Quantitative En Route Safety Assessment       Part 2 – New Approaches. J. Navigation, 55(03).
Stratton, A. 1974. Safety and Air Navigation. J. Navigation, 27(04), p.407.

Agile Project Management for Virtual Classroom Developments

 Agile Project Management for Virtual Classroom Developments
Using project management tactics in developing and managing virtual classroom project will contribute to project management success and will increase the academic satisfactions. One of those techniques in software development is agile methods. The principles of this method is
communication, simplicity, feedback, decision making, and engaging the right people to make the right decision. We introduced this method to ensure higher rate of project success. This paper will discuss the agile project management in developing virtual classroom project, this paper use
qualitative analysis to identify the impact of agile project management on the efficiency of virtual classroom project. In this paper, we will address the role of the project manager from different perspectives and provide training to the project team on the agile methods will mitigate the risk levels in the project. The paper is concluding the need to engage with the academic strategy in order to increase the institutional performance of learning outcome.
Keywords: Project Management, Agile project management, virtual classroom, academic
performance






Table of Contents



Agile project management methods have been initiated from industrial practice to ensure a higher rate of success in software development project. The processes of agile methods allow the project scope to change rapidly by placing emphasis on the stakeholder involvement and communication. Using this method in learning at education sectors became essential and imperative to improve teaching effectiveness and lead to better academic performance in higher education institutes. Virtual Classroom (VCR) is one example of online e-learning system which is unlike traditional classroom wherever the user and his/her computer happen to be, VCR can be created in supported environment of real class which includes all the course materials.
(Development, 2001) defined the process of agile method uses specific roles to deliver the product in a specific time frame. There are 12 principles behind agile methods:
- Satisfying the customer through early and continuous delivery of the software.
- Welcome changing in the requirements, even late in development.
- Delivering the software from couple of weeks to a couple of months preferring to the shorter time.
- Developers and business people should work daily within the project.
- Building the project within proper environment by supportive management to get the tasks done.
- The most efficient method to convene the information is face-to-face conversation.
- The primary measure of the progress is working software.
- The stakeholder must be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely to get sustainable agile
processes.
- Continuous focusing on the good design enhancing the agility.
- Simplicity in the work.
- The best requirements, architecture, and designs emerge from self-organizing team.
- The team should become more effective during the work on the project.
We will discuss implementation of agile project management method in virtual classroom and how we can mitigate the complexity of the project.

A.    Problem Statement

To understand the success of agile method in implementing virtual classroom project, it is very significant to understand the processes through right framework base on previous literature. Our study is how to use agile methods in implementing virtual classroom project; we will address the efficiency of virtual classroom while using agile methods in implementing the project from different prospective. We will identify the effect of the project manager role in using the agile methods and addressing the effect of the training to the project team on mitigating the risk levels in the project. In (Figure 1), we conducted some of the research study to find the gab of project efficiency in implementing virtual classroom project. We will put potentials to address the effect of agile method on the role of the project manager, and providing training to the project team in agile methods will affect the level of the risk in the project management.
Research Question: What is the impact of agile project management on the virtual classroom
project efficiency?
Hypotheses:
In this study, we will put some of the potential application in using agile methods.
H1: Agile methods will affect the role and performance of project managers.
H2: Provision of training reduces the risks involved in project development
H3: Agile methods hasten the development and implementation of a project
H4: Robust applications that are easily maintained are developed.
Figure 1: Literature review summary

2. What is APM? Attributes and values

The agile software development process has continually gained applause among software developers. This is highly attributed to the advantages that the process offers as compared to other development methodologies (Chin, 2004).  As a result, the need to better manage the process has with time evolved into agile project management. Therefore, from an overview approach point, agile project management is a branch of agile methodology. The raise of this type of management process can be attributed to the lack of the traditional methods to provide a suitable empirical, non-repeatable and unpredictable management process approach (Agilemethodology.org, 2008). The failure did not augur well with the development methodology of the famous agile method. From definition, the agile process is open to change. This is from the simple fact that unlike the waterfall development methodology, this process realizes that projects are open and prone to change and can never be sequential. A good example is the development of a virtual classroom where the needs of students and teachers are constantly changing.
 The process aims at ensuring that developers and the project stakeholders embrace change and incorporate it in the development of the project to ensure that the final results meet the needs of all the stakeholders involved. Change can occur in a variety of fields from schedules, budgets and the environment both internal and external environment (Cervone, 2011). The occurrences of these changes leads to the need of proper project management to ensure that all the changes are incorporated. Agile project management provides a solution to the changing nature of the project to ensure a streamlined approach of the needs of the business and the external stakeholders.
To achieve the needs and objectives of the business, the agile project management is composed of certain values and attributes. Among this, the key concepts are the customer, feature and done attributes. The decision and the metrics of the management process in the agile approach revolve around these concepts. Understanding the customer, the feature and the timeline within which the feature is accomplished enables a deeper understanding of the process.
Customer- this is the end-user for whom the software is being developed.in the case of a virtual classroom, the end-user is the student. The customer is responsible for the initiation of the development process as they define what and when the software is to be delivered (Cervone, 2011). Therefore, the development of a virtual classroom should be seen from the eyes of the student, what they expect to be accomplished by the software and whether it will give them the look and feel of an actual class. The development team, led by the project development manager must comply with the needs of the students to ensure a smooth development and management process for the end-product. To align the requirements and the objectives, the agile project management process enhances the duties of the customer to comprise of making decisions and answering project domain questions as well as prioritizing what should be delivered and when  (Wysocki, 2009). Therefore, in these scenario, students acts as the point of contact for providing the directions on the project. The agile project management process proves to be more powerful as it can incorporate more than one student. Therefore, justifiable to be adopted in a learning institution.
Feature- a feature defines how a system behaves. In the case of a virtual classroom, it defines how the stakeholders involved such as students and teachers interact with one another. The student is not only the end user as the teachers and system administrators are also involved in viewing the information and tracking performance. The success of a project has to comply with the feature specification of all end users. The features defined by the student must be verifiable in terms of design specifications as well as the functionality. If student needs are not met fully by the resulting virtual class application, the probability of lack of satisfaction will be high and this may lead to a redo of the system (Karlesky, V & er Voord, 2008). This means that the project management failed since there lacked a proper coordination between the end users and the developers. The agile project management process was designed to ensure that the features of a project are fully documented and implemented for the sake of meeting the needs of all the stakeholders involved in the process are satisfied. A proper definition of the feature is necessary to ensure that the features are not confused with tasks or modules (Wysocki, 2009). In large projects, it is a common occurrence to divide the system into modules. If the features to be delivered by the system are not fully documented, the module developers may forfeit their roles and fail to deliver the complete functionality of the system and blame the collaborating developers. With the agile project management approach, the feature must be explicit in order to show who is to deliver what and when. Features are not possessive of the details of implementation. However, they pay attention to the functionality and the requirements of the users. In a virtual class for example, the following modules are to be implemented; the teachers module, the student module and the administrators module.
Done- done defines the point at which all the features of the project have been fully delivered and implemented. On a single analysis basis, this sounds like a simple task and one that is straight forward. However, determining when all the predefined features are met can be hectic especially when the initial feature were not fully documented. A point of contradiction has always been observed arising from the traditional management process as they lack a well-defined and elaborated approach to the project feature and customer requirements. Using Gantt charts, project timelines can be met with all the stages being well implemented within a specific periods of time. The agile project management process guarantees up to 95% completeness of the project within the specified period of time (Karlesky, V & er Voord, 2008). This is a success as compared to the other management processes which are not time specific and fail to capture customer needs. Having a well-defined ‘done’ approach is essential in determining when the project features have been met. This is what the agile project management achieves. A state of completion has to be met for the feature to be termed as done.  Various tests such the system, unit, user acceptance and functionality tests have to be met by the system for the done concept to be full realized (iTnews, 2014). Failure to this, the system does not meet the full scope of the done module. The developers have to test the system for proper auditing and performance and provide the customer with the module to cross check user acceptance (Karlesky, V & er Voord, 2008). A virtual classroom will be termed complete only when all the modules previously mentioned are fully implemented and asserted to be functioning properly.

3. Challenges in implementing Agile Project management frameworks on a virtual classroom


The agile development project has a variety of advantages. However, this merits cannot be fully realized if the development methodology that was used in initial development of the process utilized the traditional methods of software development life cycle. The change from a traditional approach to the agile approach requires a change in the way the development process is carried out. Changes such as in the user requirement analysis, design, project scheduling and team management as well as the measuring of the project progress must be reviewed (iTnews, 2014).  This means that the project management using agile method is not suitable to be implemented in all organizations. The goals, mission, aim and the process flow of the works and processes within an institution must be reviewed for the project to be implemented and managed using the agile approach.  A school has to specify its goals and objectives prior to adopting this method. It is paramount to note that a model that works for one institution of learning may not necessary work for the other due to differences in the courses and schedules offered. In the same manner, an agile management approach that works for a certain level such as high school may not be adopted for a college or a university.
Another key challenge that arises in this process is finding a reliable, well acquitted and understanding project manager with skills, experience and ability to provide management and coordination of the stakeholders of the project. Creation of virtual classes will involve teachers and students that are not familiar with the jargon of programming. Therefore, the project manager must provide a balance between external processes in the project development and internal processes and interpret user requirements effectively. To achieve this with effectiveness, the project manager must be well acquitted with the agile development method (Goncalves & Heda, 2010). This challenge arises since experienced managers are hard to acquire and when they are acquired they tend to be expensive. This provides a negative effect on the cost, scope and time expected to deliver the project. The customer may hasten their project delivery times to ensure that the costs are kept to a minimum. Consequently, some features of the project may not be fully implemented. In the maintenance process, the agile project development approach cannot be fully applied to systems that did not adopt the development approach of agility.

3.1 Misconceptions about agile approaches


The agile development process is prone to a number of misconceptions that people attribute with the process. Despite this, the misconceptions do not reduce the productivity or the power of the process. Some of the major misconceptions that are held concerning the approach are outlined below.
ü  People assume that the practitioners of this approach do not plan. However, this is a misguided misconception as a lot of detail has to be laid down in the planning phase.
ü  Agile project management can be accomplished with few resources and without the need for a project manager. The success of the agile project management approach solely lies on the commitment, availability and the experience of the project manager. The manager is responsible for evaluating the development process and determining what is to be done, by who and at what specific time and for how long
ü  Requirements definition and analysis are seen as being disregarded using this approach and most people, especially customers assume that their contributions to the process is being disregarded. However, unlike the other processes, the approach takes into account the contribution of the end users in all the phases of the development. Therefore, the requirement definition and analysis may not be seen in the initial phase as evidenced using the traditional approaches but can be evidenced in all the changes that are incorporated in the development of the software.

3.2 Project portfolio management


            The success of implementing the agile process lies in the ability to manage and maintain a project portfolio. A good project portfolio outlines the aims of a process and the suitable projects that the methodology can be implemented. The agile approach is suitable for experimental and innovative projects such as a virtual classroom. Therefore, for emergent projects whose requirements are not fully grasped in the initial phase, this process can be used as the requirements will be realized during the iterations phase and when the first few prototypes are delivered to the customer (Christiansen, Turkina & Williams, 2013). Using this method, the initial prototype will be redefined to meet the needs of the customer as their needs evolve based on the functionality offered.

II. Literature review

Scottish Law

Scottish Law
When it comes to legal matters, common sense, humanity and concern are mainly overshadowed v (Youngscot.org, 2014). There are different opinions and stands taken by individuals when it comes to legal matters. However, the ultimate decision lies with the court once legal action has been taken.  The scots law govern the legal system in Scotland. The scots law comprises both civil laws and common laws making it a mixed, hybrid legal system.  The compilation of the legal actions in Scotland trace back in history (Exton, 1755).  It is part of the legal system of the United Kingdom and is applied in combination with the English and Northern Ireland law (Stair, 1987).  Evaluating the case of Duncan and Fred there different concerns.
On one hand, Fred is a compassionate and responsible neighbor. Out of the good of his heart he decided to fix the leaking apartment of his neighbor. However, there lacks supportive evidence on the costs he incurred during the fixation process and it Duncan has grounds to refuse to refund him. However, taking the matter from a legal perspective, it can be seen that Fred has different ground for arguing and building his case. The case study clearly stipulates that Duncan was obligated to give his neighbor his keys and contact information during his adventurous journey for contact emergencies and that he could water his plants and feed his pet. The denial of Duncan to refund Fred the expenses he incurred repairing his apartment can be argued from this stand. Fred has justifiable cause to sue Duncan on grounds of negligence (Scottishlaw.org.uk, 2014). The Stewart Dunn’s law of damages applies in Scotland, and Fred can use this clause to his advantage.
According this clause, despite there being no verifiable evidence, Duncan can claim that the absence of his neighbor resulted into a leak that damaged his personal property. To argument and cement this claim, it is clear from the case that Fred did not fix the ceiling from where the leaks occurred (Scotsman.com, 2014). This means that there is evidence of the probable damage that the water from Duncan’s apartment posed to the living conditions of Fred.  The law of damages as clarified by Paul Jensen applies in Scotland when it poses either direct or indirect damage to the victim. The Stewart Dunn book on the law of damages clarifies on the matter in the United Kingdom, and Scotland happens to be among the affected nations (Scotland.gov.uk, 2014). The book acts as a manual for the victims of damages and tort. As such, Fred fall under the damages category and he has grounds for claiming that Duncan posed not only a risk to his living conditions, but also an irrefutable health hazard as he was nowhere to be reached. The damages clause covers unnecessary costs and time and stipulates the conditions under which funds are to be refunded to the victim of the damages.
The angry and adamant nature of Duncan exposes him to the unforgiving hand of the law. He could have escaped the indulgence of the law by settling the expenses of replacement in-house with Fred. However, he argues it is unnecessary expensive and that Fred had no business but to leave it, and Duncan would have sorted it once he was back. At the beginning of the case, it is evident that Duncan had some pet fish and plants in the house that he was supposed to care. However, he left without informing any concerned third party. It is a legal requirement in Scotland that pets, of any kind, are the sole responsibility of the owner (Scotland, 1656). In this case, Fred has grounds to file a case against Duncan, who neglected his pet fish on his adventurous journey to the amazon. From a wise man’s point of view, Duncan would not have opened the closet to showcase his dirty linen.
According to the Erasmus guide to obligations, he stipulates that obligations are not limited to the family only (Lawscot.org.uk, 2014). They extend to the properties owned by an individual either solely or jointly. In the case of joint ownership, it should be clearly stipulated on who is taking care of the pets, animals or properties within the joint venture for a stipulated period. Since joint application does not apply in the case of Duncan, it can be inferred that he is solely responsible for feeding the pets in his house. Also, watering plants to keep them alive and under no instance is he to neglect this responsibility without informing the legal authorities. If Fred files this motion in court, the chances for a tilt in favor of Duncan are very minor. This is based on the fact that he will be speaking for the voices that are silent, the plants and the pet fish. To aggravate the matter and face Duncan with the same cruelty that he shows Fred can go a step further and report this to animal activists. In Scotland, the animal health and negligence act that was implemented in 2006 requires that owners oversee the welfare of their animals (Lawscot.org.uk, 2014). This is a clause that Duncan broke by leaving his pet fish unattended.
To conclude the case, Fred has solid ground for turning the case towards his favor. In his defense, he can argue that he broke into Duncan’s house for fear of his safety and fixed a leaking pipe was the right thing to do to protect the damage of his property. Therefore, the counter breaking that may be filled by Duncan has no chance of withstanding this undisputed protection need.







References
Bankton, A. (1751). An institute of the laws of Scotland in civil rights. Edinburgh: Printed by R.    Fleming, for A. Kincaid and A. Donaldson, and sold by them and other Booksellers.
Exton, J. (1755). The maritime dicæologie. London: Sold by J. Worrall, at the Dove in Bell-          Yard, near Lincoln's Inn.
Lawscot.org.uk,. (2014). Home | Law Scotland. Retrieved 2 November 2014, from             http://www.lawscot.org.uk/ 
Scotland.,. (1656). At Edinburgh the 27th of February, 1656. By the judges of his Hignness court of Exchequer in Scotland. S.l.: Printed by Christopher Higgins, in Harts-Close, over         against the Trone-Church.
Scotland.gov.uk,. (2014). Caring For Your Animals: The Animal Health and Welfare (Scotland)   Act 2006. Retrieved 2 November 2014, from     http://www.scotland.gov.uk/publications/2006/10/13113744/1 
Scotland.gov.uk,. (2014). Law, Order & Public Safety - Scottish Government. Retrieved 2                         November 2014, from http://www.scotland.gov.uk/topics/justice 
Scotsman.com,. (2014). Legal or ludicrous? Strange Scottish laws. Retrieved 2 November 2014,   from http://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/heritage/legal-or-ludicrous-strange-scottish-      laws-1-2583530 
Scottishlaw.org.uk,. (2014). Contract Law in Scotland, UK. Retrieved 2 November 2014, from                 http://www.scottishlaw.org.uk/lawscotland/contract.html 
Stair, J. (1987). The Laws of Scotland. Edinburgh: Law Society of Scotland.
Youngscot.org,. (2014). Your Rights and the Law - Young Scot. Retrieved 2 November 2014,        from http://www.youngscot.org/info/your-rights-the-law 

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