You are committing a file with bug fixes to the SVN, there is an issue with a conflict in the file what does this mean? How do you solve it?

Questions and Answers
Question: You are committing a file with bug fixes to the SVN, there is an issue with a conflict in the file what does this mean? How do you solve it?
Answer:
A conflict happens because changes were made to the same parts of the file in two different branches. You solve a conflict by editing the parts where conflict occurred, remove markers that indicate the conflict and add whatever changes you want to apply. This means that since the last update, some changes have been committed to the SVN (most likely when a project has multiple developers). A simple solution is to revert the current changes and update the copy in progress i.e.
$ svn revert README
Reverted ‘README’
$ svn update README
Second, I may choose to keep my changes and dump the earlier saved changes. This will ensure that all special files formally generated are cleaned up.
Lastly, I can create a new version from both conflicting files. Here I would manually edit the readme file and add or remove any conflicting makers. The new file will be marked as resolved to ensure that subversion enables committing.

Question: How would you find out what files were out of date within SVN and commit those specific files into a revision with a log message via the command line?
Answer:
`svn st` will report which files have local changes.
`svn diff` each file, this avoids accidental white-space checkins


Question: How do you use memcached to optimize mysql queries?
Answer:
Memcache is an object caching system and as such I use it to store queries that are small and yet return small data sets. I use it to create caching scripts. However, based on my experience not all DB queries are suitable for caching especially where the database server caches queries. Here is an example code of how I utilize memcache
//declare a global variable of memcache
global $memcache;
$memcache=new MemCache;
//create a function to get the value into memcache
function getCache($cacheKey){
global $memcache;
return ($memcache) ? $memcache-> get(cacheKey) : false;
}
function setCache($key,$object,$timeout = 60) {
        global $memcache;
        return ($memcache) ? $memcache->set($key,$object,MEMCACHE_COMPRESSED,$timeout) : false;
    }

    # Caching version of mysql_query()
    function mysql_query_cache($sql,$linkIdentifier = false,$timeout = 60) {
        if (($cache = getCache(md5("mysql_query" . $sql))) !== false) {
            $cache = false;
            $r = ($linkIdentifier !== false) ? mysql_query($sql,$linkIdentifier) : mysql_query($sql);
            if (is_resource($r) && (($rows = mysql_num_rows($r)) !== 0)) {
                for ($i=0;$i<$rows;$i++) {
                    $fields = mysql_num_fields($r);
                    $row = mysql_fetch_array($r);
                    for ($j=0;$j<$fields;$j++) {
                        if ($i === 0) {
                            $columns[$j] = mysql_field_name($r,$j);
                        }
                        $cache[$i][$columns[$j]] = $row[$j];
                    }
                }
                if (!setCache(md5("mysql_query" . $sql),$cache,$timeout)) {
                    # If we get here, there isn't a memcache daemon running or responding
                }
            }
        }
        return $cache;
    }
?>


Question: How do you iterate an array in smarty?
Answer:
The following is an iteration of an array in smarty
Array
$data = array(10,11,12);
$smarty->assign('ourname',$data);
?>
{section name=ournames loop=$ourname}
{section ournames $ourname}
  id: {$ourname[ournames]}
{/section}
{section name=foo loop=$ourname step=-1}
{section foo $ourname step=-1}
  {$ourname[foo]}
{/section}

Question: PHP errors are not displaying on the page you are developing. You only have SFTP Access to change files. How do you display the errors?
Answer:
Evaluate files using command-line php. ie: php file.php
Question: What is better and more efficient in development time for a large scale enterprise PHP / MySQL application? Using packages and open source classes or developing your own solutions?
Answer:
Using packages and open source classes (why reinvent the wheel?)


Question: What are the risks of using user inputted data in SQL queries and how to eliminate this risk ?
Answer:
It leaves you open to SQL injection attacks. Eliminate the risk by escaping all user input data

Question: You have been given a specification and been briefed on a project. The specification included work that was already completed for the project but there are many bugs and you did not write this code. What do you do?
Answer:
Study the code, evaluate how easy it is to fix the bugs as compared to writing new code. Select whichever outweighs the other.
Question: There is a bug in your code, what do you do?
Answer:
Debug and fix it, test everything to ensure the fix didn't break other things (automated tests are your friend here)

Question: Recently users are complaining they are being logged out of the site. The site uses sessions and php. Also recently a new webserver was added, bringing the total to 2. What could be causing this and how would it be solved?
Answer:
The two servers may cause users to flip from one server to another. The solution is to petition management, to get a core library upgrade. You replace the SESSION storage mechanism with the database-backed one so either server may load the SESSION. Also I will check all the certs and domain paths first on the COOKIEs, to avoid future problems.

Question: You need to create a search function for a website with over 2.000 searches per second on a record set of 100.000.000 text records. How would you do this assuming data source is in MySQL?
Answer:
There are two options; one, use memcache or two, set the express caching on the MYSQL server. Whichever provides the least response time should be adopted.
Question: You need to integrate an external website's data that does not have an API - describe this process.
Answer:
Have the site send you files containing the data in a structured format such as xml, json. Parse these files to extract whatever data you need
Question: You've written a news service in PHP that needs to be used by many external websites. How would you allow those websites to use your functions to display the news on their site?
Answer:
Create a Web service (e.g. using soap protocol) that returns xml, json etc.

Question: You want to create an AJAX suggestion box that displays in real time suggestions related to the content of the search text field. Describe how this process would work.
Answer:

https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/images/cleardot.gif Implement on key release action, this ensures that as the user types on the text field every character is parsed to the database (using Ajax, and a return of results using json) and filtered accordingly and the return is based on the typed characters. Similar to how Facebook search button works. Really simple to implement.

Why does Woolf close To the lighthouse with the word “Vision”?

Why does Woolf close To the lighthouse with the word “Vision”?
Woolf is widely acclaimed and admired due to her vivid and technical approach to literature.  Her works are identifiable by a stream of consciousness and narration as depicted in the novel To the Lighthouse (1927).  The work is considered her greatest achievement as she strives to illuminate issues pertaining to feminism, marriage and necessity and the struggle for women as they strive in the performance and achievement ladder. Good and great stories are told from the perspective of fundamental ingredients. The initial situation is cited, and a conflict is developed that gives rise to complications, climax, suspense, denouement paving way to a resolved conclusion. Either in a work of fiction or a real life simulation scenario, renowned writers indulge in shaking up the writing recipe and inculcating some spice to the literature to catch and maintain the attention of the reader as they drive their point forth. In this essence, it becomes tough to evaluate the plot of the novel since time does move with a definite goal to the narrative. The plot depicts struggle, one that correlates directly to the issues faced daily and the challenges in overcoming the same.
Virginia Woolf uses numerous characters to deliver the plot and portray a writer who capture and maintains dominance in a specific realm. A realm that engages the writers and supposedly engulfs them in the reading. Mrs. Ramsay, for example, has been portrayed as a character of great kindness as she emerges in the novels opening pages.  She has been shown to be tolerant and a protector.  Her main duty is the protection of James her son and maintaining her his hope as it is in the lighthouse. It is evident that she spends most of her time thinking about others and placing them before her own needs. “For now she needs not think of anybody. She could be herself, by herself. And that was what now she often felt the need of - to think; well not even to think. To be silent; to be alone. All the being and the doing, expansive, glittering, vocal, evaporated; and one shrunk, with a sense of solemnity, to being oneself, a wedge-shaped core of darkness, something invisible to others... and this self-having shed its attachments was free for the strangest adventures. (Woolf)” Therefore, her duty in this case can be fundamentally related with the role played by women in the society. They are looking for ways to enhance the livelihoods of their children, and as such, they appear as protective as opposed to being domineering.
Despite the realization that changes in the weather would ruin their voyage, she is full of hope and assures her son that the trip is a possibility. A depiction of the light of hope, one that was lingering in the woman’s heart despite circumstantial evidence that said otherwise. In the process of given hope, she is realistic and does not raise expectations that cannot be met. The attribution of this can be correlated with her realization that the pleasures and beauties of the world are to be preserved, cultivated and protected. A deep commitment is shown in her belief that she attributes herself and behaves in a similar manner with her guests. The commitment surpasses and encapsulates those that do not deserve nor appreciate her kindness. Among these are Augustus Carmichael, who she is convinced does not like her as well as tolerates Charles Tansley behavior.  There are those individuals such as the latter whose behavior is wanting and pose a risk of crumbling down the effort of Ramsay in making a comfortable and inviting home.
The theme of masculinity and femininity are analyzed in the novel. The feminine principal has been emphasized and represented by Miss Ramsay.  Charles and Mr. Ramsey, on the other hand, are symbols used buy Woolf to signify the masculine intelligence. Despite this, the author depicts through the use of undertones and the evaluation of the characters behavior that one gender platform depicts hope while the other the light is fading away. The masculinity is represented as dissecting, analytical, and proportional in propensity, emotional, peevish, egocentric, and undeveloped and a kind of behavior to be discarded in the society. The differentiation of the two principles is evident through the comparison of Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay presentation and the contrast is emphasized by Charles Tansley and Lily Briscoe. The attitude of men towards women is wanting and questionable in this society and era. The author uses a polemical attack to the patriarchal dominance of men in the society. However, the citation of this is arguable based on the notion of the reader.
Life and its meaning are deeply explored in the text. “What is the meaning of life?  That was a simple question; one that tended to close in on one with years, the great revelation had never come. The great revelation perhaps never did come. Instead, there were little daily miracles, illuminations, matches struck unexpectedly in the dark; here was one. (Woolf)” The hope in the changes in life was nowhere to be seen. It is evident that simple question carried weight and hope for the feminine gender. Hope that one-day life could have some meaning and equality could be achieved. However, at this juncture the changes observed in daily life were nothing short of mere miracles. The reality and the meaning of life depicted something else different entirely. The work of Mrs. Ramsay depicts the reality and the conspicuousness that is perceived from that reality. “How does one know that the reality they know is real? (Woolf)” A conjecture is drawn by the author between the current events and the past and the future. Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay incur different strategies in an attempt of making their lives have meaning and be significant. Mr. Ramsay progression is devoted to the human thought course.  On the other hand, Mrs. Ramsay evaluates memorable experiences from the social interactions she has encountered. There is a failure of gaining the philosophical attrition and understanding that the individuals claim. Therefore, the author attests that it is solely important for collaboration in the quest of understanding the underlying meaning of life.  Mrs. Ramsay feels that “…life, from being made up of little separate incidents which one lived one by one, became curled and whole like a wave which bore one up with it and threw one down with it, there, with a dash on the beach. (Woolf)” The depiction of this view is that life is a quest; a process in which the individuals strive to maintain a longitudinal value and attain happiness.
Cultivating a society that promotes equality is the only way to attain happiness and discover partially if not fully the meaning of life. Woolf concludes the book with the saying that “.... I have had my vision. (Woolf)”.  The vision depicts a better life, one in which the character escapes from the daunting daily challenges and acquires freedom. A society in which she does not have to worry of her sons and strive to satisfy his husband. Her vision is of an equal society where the meaning of life is realized, and the worries of life are left behind and put aside.

Works cited

Woolf, Virginia. To The Lighthouse. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1927. Print.

El Tonto Del Barrio


El Tonto Del Barrio
The story describes a man; Romero, who has connections and possess a special communication and arrangement with the Centro of the Golden Heights (Armas). The author describes the man as touched despite being a lowly life as portrayed in the eyes of the majority. Society classification has it qualms, and a man who sweeps the streets is, usually, low life based on the status placed on the dwellers of the city. In exchange, Romero gets handout after accomplishing clean sweep of the sidewalks. However, there are individuals in the society who feel for the man. For example, the son of Barela; Seferino offers Romero a wage for his efforts in keeping the sidewalks clean and tidy (Madden). Romero accepts the wage but as time goes by, he starts asking for more. However, he is denied the increase by Seferino and this drives Romero to the edge. He starts living on credit and as things escalate from bad to worse, the man starts stealing. He becomes a nuisance in the city; lifting the skirts of women, and flipping the traffic. However, the behavior of this character as portrayed by the author goes back to normal once Seferino goes back to Harvard. The claim that money changed Romero is an issue open for discussion as evaluated in this paper. I am open to the opinion that money did not change Romero.
Initially, Romero cleaned the sidewalks for free. There were not mumbling, or argument and every person looked down on him. Then came Seferino, a man with a big heart and who saw the mistreatment that the society imposed on a man who offered free services and kept the city clean and asked for no wage (Daylover's Blog). The extended offer to give the man a wage was valid and can not only be a just course, but a right he dissevered. Good works should never go unnoticed, and Seferino notices the works of Romero. Arguing and judging that money changed the behavior of Romero is an open argument. The entire arguments being based on the view that an individual has on the society. On one hand, a person who believes in justice and equality will support that Romero deserved a pay and money did not change him. On the other hand, individuals maintaining a high-class society status will oppose the opinion outlining the poor decisions made by Romero after he received payment.
Having an obligation and a job gives an individual a sense of purpose. The case of Romero is not different in regard to this theory. Sweeping the cities sidewalks inculcated a sense of belonging to the individual, a purpose and a role to fulfil (Armas). It is the unseen motivating factor that made Romero wake up every day and make the sidewalks clean. It was simply his duty. Despite his commitment, he has been portrayed as an individual with erratic behavior. However, the barrio tolerates his behavior based on the fact that he is a central source of the society which shows commitment and hard work. During all this time, Romero carries out his duty and obligation without a pay. Seferino offers him a wage based on the fact that people have the same concept of money and Romero’s was not different from the others (Saron's Creative Writing Blog). Hard work and self-worth are essential attributes that deserve a pay in the eyes of Seferino. Once he tasted money; the life of Romero changed. He tasted the goodies that accompany better living and money in particular.
The wage denial that he had experienced for a long time had created a loophole that alienated him from the good life. Once the wage from Seferino came, part of this hole was filled. However, life had too much to offer that the wage he received could not cover. He desired for more. As a result, he had asked for a raise from his boss. The denial of a pay raise resulted into retaliation. Romero started being reckless and living on credit. From a physiological perspective, this can be interpreted as a way of trying to plead with his boss. On the other hand, such a response can be interpreted differently and seen as a challenge to an individual who has been corrupted by money. In an attempt to defend my view and stand in this argument, I believe that money did not change Romero, the lack of enough changed his perspective. If the money were the root of his actions, he would have gone ballistic after receiving his first pay. The lack of an increase made him change his behavior.
Prior to the introduction of money in the equation, Romero can is portrayed as jovial individual. One who sings and sets a jovial mood in the neighborhood. The switch of insanity flips once he starts enjoying the value of money. Despite his abnormality, he possesses a mature and positive attitude towards work. He did it thoroughly and without being compelled or followed. The remuneration that he received was in terms of handouts. During this entire time, Romero never complains concerning the working conditions surrounding his work, and neither does he ask for a wage. The story has a moral lesson; to always let the lying dogs lie. The good-hearted Seferino did more harm than good through introducing money to the individual. It is through his actions that Romero acted in a disrespectful manner and one that imposed the lack of peace in the society. He disrupted the daily ritual of Romero. His contribution to the society was via cleaning the sidewalks. He always took his job seriously ‘he took great care to sweep between the cracks and the sides of the building” (Armas), setting an excellent example to the children in the society.
The society consists of individuals with roles to play. Based on the value and level of the individual status in the society, the remuneration levels vary. To some, it may appear unfair and in the case of Romero, receiving handout after cleaning the sidewalks may seem unfair to an outsider (Daylover's Blog). However, it was through this motivation that a peaceful coexistence in a society without havoc elucidate. People place a different value on wages and money and also react differently once they possess money. To some it is not only an essential to living, it is a source of power and recognition. As a tool to these values, the use of it should be accompanied by a sense of responsibility. Romero is a part of a successful society; the individuals care for his wellbeing despite the lack of appreciation in terms of money (Saron's Creative Writing Blog). The most valuable relationship in a society is observed in terms of peaceful coexistence and valuing one another. If the introduction of money in the life of Romero jeopardizes this values, then members of the society are inclined to remove it from the equation. Despite being a villain in the village, Romero signifies a strong work ethic and values the members of the society especially their effort through the band to support him.


Works cited
Armas, Jose. "El Tonto Del Barrio." Harper Anthology of Fiction. Ed. Sylvan Barnet. NY:                            HarperCollins, 1991. 1137-1142.
Daylover's Blog,. 'Summary Vs. Analysis Examples--El Tonto Del Barrio'. N.p., 2012. Web. 15    Oct. 2014.
Madden, Frank. Exploring Literature. 1st ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2009. Print.
Saron's Creative Writing Blog,. 'Journal 1: El Tonto Del Barrio'. N.p., 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.

Violent Video Games and Their Relationship with Actual Violence

Violent Video Games and Their Relationship with Actual Violence
According to the World Health Organization, Violence is the use of physical force or power intentionally against oneself, another individual or a group (Adachi & Willoughby, 2011). The application of violence has a higher tendency of resulting in injury or suffering of the involved parties. Modern media world is surrounded by various forms of violence especially in video games. For this reason, fingers of blame are pointed around prompting the question of the legitimacy of violent video games (Dittrick, Beran, Mishna, Hetherington & Shariff, 2013). To what extent do video games contribute to violence among youths and in the society? The paper evaluates a number of factors correlating violence to violent video games.
Research and statistical data indicate that approximately 79 percent of youths in America play video games for at least eight hours weekly (Adachi & Willoughby, 2011). A majority of the video games are characterized by violence and scenes of obscenity, and one wonders about the effect of such exposure. Teenagers are socially evolving and during their development, their emotions are vulnerable and adaptive to their interactions. Therefore, exposure to violence instills violence traits in their structurally and social development. Such violence is later exposed in their interaction with others and in the society as a whole.
Videogames date back to roughly 20 years ago when the development of technology took full fledge. For this reason, there lack empirical evidence simulating the challenges posed by video games to the traits of violence in the society. Cause-effect studies that try to relate violent individuals with a history of violent upbringing (One associated with video game playing), indicate a closer relationship (Dittrick, Beran, Mishna, Hetherington & Shariff, 2013). For examples, a majority of individuals prosecuted with car stealing cases poses a background of playing Grand theft auto, a game where players take cars and violate traffic rules. Such studies are indicative that violent games instill a culture of violence among the youths.
Physiological signs of aggression are prevalent to individuals’ teens who participate in playing violent video games. From a psychological point of view, during participation in the competition, the individuals’ blood pressure and heart rate drastically increases on the basis of the thrill of the match (Dittrick, Beran, Mishna, Hetherington & Shariff, 2013). Similar changes are experienced in the real world in fights and physical encounters. Such reactions induce changes in the behavioral models of the individual and, as a result, increase chances of being aggressive in the real world. Through classical conditioning, the mentality of the youth adapts to the environment in which they interact and spend time (Markey, Markey & French, 2014). Cases have been cited where teenagers playing games such as Mortal Kombat result in physical violence against each other once a particular party is dissatisfied with the results on the screen.
Despite that correlation does not directly imply cause, the evidence behind the changes in the behavior of individual’s teenagers is attributed to exposure to violent environments (Adachi & Willoughby, 2011). Video games provide a platform of violence that is readily available by the young. The blame games shifts from parenting to game developers and governmental regulation. However, the need to regulate violent games provision is an essential requirement; one that will inculcate moral uprightness among the young. Parenting also plays a critical role in ensuring that violence is regulated and mitigated in the society (Dittrick, Beran, Mishna, Hetherington & Shariff, 2013). Taking video games as the sole causative agent of violence is escaping the roles of parenting and regulation.


References
Adachi, P., & Willoughby, T. (2011). The effect of violent video games on aggression: Is it more than just the violence?. Aggression And Violent Behavior, 16(1), 55-62. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2010.12.002
Dittrick, C., Beran, T., Mishna, F., Hetherington, R., & Shariff, S. (2013). Do Children Who        Bully Their Peers Also Play Violent Video Games? A Canadian National Study. Journal          Of School Violence, 12(4), 297-318. doi:10.1080/15388220.2013.803244
Markey, P., Markey, C., & French, J. (2014). Violent Video Games and Real-World Violence:      Rhetoric Versus Data. Psychology Of Popular Media Culture. doi:10.1037/ppm0000030

Current issues in Vietnam

Current issues in Vietnam
According to The Japan News, Vietnam has filed a legal suit that is aimed at opposing the Chinese claim on the waters that are off the coast of Vietnam.  The Vietnamese prime minister said that the country is seeking for the appropriate time to file the motion (Army Times). Taking a legal action is the measure and reaction that the country aims at after a series of disputes between the owners of the waters of the two countries.  There is tension and standoff between the two countries after China claimed to have the right to drill oil off the Vietnamese coast. Therefore, the area around the deep sea rig was to be cleared and left alone; warned the Chinese to the Vietnamese.  There has been a series of disputes between China and its boarders. However, the recent stale with Vietnam has raised an alarm for a possible conflict between the countries.
The Paracel Islands is where the China has placed an oil rig. However, current news indicate that four days ago, a Vietnamese boat collided with a Chinese ship and sank and this has ignited tension and founded grounds for Vietnam challenging the control of the island by the people’s republic of China.  The challenge against China is not only from the Vietnamese, the legal framework follows a suit that was filed to the United Nations concerning the dominion of the China on the shoals of the Philippines coast. Based on this, the people of Vietnam are pressuring their prime minister to respond through a legal action towards the country. A legal move by the country will not only have diplomatic challenges but also economic effects on the country. China is a leading regional trade partner with Vietnam and this means that a legal action on the country will force the country to result to arbitration. This will result in relinquishing the control of the coast and consequently a reduced supply of gas, oil and fish.
An open conflict would have catastrophic economic effects on the performance of the two countries. According to the Dung, the prime minister of Vietnam, approximately two thirds of the world’s maritime trade passes through the South China Sea. This means that a fight over the control and ownership of the region is a global issue more than it is a national concern. 15% of Vietnamese global trade results from trading with China (Army Times). This means that the national sovereignty of the country is more influenced by the economic ties between the two countries. As a result, this puts the prime minister in a tight position; should he grant the wishes of the citizens and proceed with the legal suit or put the interests of the country before-hand?  The project growth of the Vietnamese economy by 5.42% as compare to 2013 would be greatly influenced by China (News). However, the dispute in the sea does not augur well with the performance of the Vietnamese economy and drastic measures have to be put in place to ensure that the negative impact experienced in some sectors of the economy is reduced (Army Times).
“Dung calls for a stronger voice against China by the USA” (Nytimes.com).  As a super power, the United States is expected to intervene and effect regional stability and peace in a more effective contribution. The actions of China are cited as examples that are destabilizing the region of the southern boarder coast. In its defense, the people’s republic of China claims it wants a “sea of peace, friendship and cooperation” (Reuters). However, the recent act and claims of control of the southern China sea can be termed as acts of violence that are destabilizing national and international cooperation. Vietnam has been pushing for a diplomatic approach towards solving the issue of control in this region. It demands that the Chinese government withdraw its armies and the oil rig placed within the region. Other countries that have a political impact within the region have not been left behind in the quest of addressing the issue. According to the Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, his country is committed to “thoroughly maintain the freedom of navigation and freedom of the flight. (Shimbun)”
History may be at the verge of repeating itself. In 1979, Vietnam was at loggerheads with the Chinese regarding a boarder war. Analysts predict that in order to curb this from recurring, legal action by Vietnam has to be relinquished. According to the culture of the east, legal action means that the two countries are “no longer good friends” (Press). China is adamant and believes that it has the right to defend it boundaries and interests. According to Chinese nine dash line publication of 1940s, the region extending off the coast of Borneo belongs to China as it claims sovereign power over the Paracel Islands (Shimbun). However, the map was redefined in 1982 giving Vietnam and Philippines a led in the region. This was further ratified by China in 1996 with redefinition of non-living resources and exclusive economic zones. China has continuously been seen to take control of small parts of the east sea especially after gaining control of the Scarborough Shoal (The New Zealand Herald).
In conclusion, a question of what is the Chinese endgame arises. Political and territorial analysts argue that the ultimate goal of the country is to displace the dominant military power of the United States in the region (Shimbun). This will ensure that the country will have not only territorial dominance, but also economic and cultural influence within the region. There is little hope of China relinquishing control of the region. This makes the world wonder whether this is the country’s approach towards being a super power; gaining a small piece at a time.

Works cited
Army Times,. 'Vietnam Accuses China Of Sinking Fishing Boat'. N. p., 2014. Web. 31 May.        2014.
News, Bloomberg. 'Vietnam Prepares Suit Against China In Spat Over Oil Rig'. Bloomberg. N.    p., 2014. Web. 31 May. 2014.  
Nytimes.com,. 'Log In - The New York Times'. N. p., 2014. Web. 31 May. 2014.
Press, Associated. 'China Insists It Has Right To Put Rig Off Vietnam'. Fox News. N. p., 2014.    Web. 31 May. 2014.
Reuters,. 'Vietnam, China Trade Accusations After Vietnamese Fishing Boat Sinks'. N. p., 2014. Web. 31 May. 2014.
Shimbun, The. 'Vietnam Set To Issue Legal Challenge Against China'. The Japan News. N. p.,     2014. Web. 31 May. 2014.

The New Zealand Herald,. 'Why China Is Putting An Oil Rig Off Vietnam Coast - Business - NZ             Herald News'. N. p., 2014. Web. 31 May. 2014.

The Fallacy of "Giving Up" - The Atlantic

The Fallacy of "Giving Up" - The Atlantic
The fallacy of giving up is an evaluation of the changes in the human body and specifically the brain. The end process is not connected to the mere wearing of the body, but a gradual shutting down that is closely related to the mind. The central claim proposed in the essay by the author is the futility of fighting a losing battle. Waging war against the inevitable death. According to the article, old age is attributed to the changes in the brain, as opposed to changes in the physical body. The proposition that CT scans can determine the age of an individual is a fascinating idea that supports the changes in the human body. The article compares the loss of brain volume to the recession of gums from the teeth that all characterize aging. Any efforts to fight back and against aging are finite and futile, and the subjection of patients to particular studies are unnecessary. Old age, like death, is inevitable and despite all undertakings both scientific and social, the process cannot be reversed. There are different citations provided by the author with the same conclusion such as studies by Philip Roth, Gawande, and Angelo Volandes among others. The various research and opinions of the perpetrators are integrated with the essay to provide a common theme of the futility of opposing the natural course of events in the human body. The point of focus is the shrinking of the human brain with age among other factors characterizing old age.
The essay can be seen to address the old and weary. Using the approach of distinct analysis, the author asserts the misconception that many patients receive of costly and yet unwanted care. Such care involves old age caring in the hospital. The audience can be deciphered from the author’s way of referencing medical practitioners such as Volandes. He quotes the previous assertions made by Volandes numerously in the past such as the fact that if people were informed, they would be less likely to need the medical care they receive from the hospitals. It is evident that connecting to this old person does not only involve an informative approach, but also an educative means of ensuring they do not waste their time getting costly unwanted medical care. Using a rhetorical approach, the author asserts that for the past ten years, they have been trying to enhance patient involvement. For example, the need for patients bringing conversations to doctors as opposed to waiting for the doctors. The questions are directed to the old since old age is closely related to the verge of dying. People want to die at the comfort of their homes and unfortunately, approximately 55 percent of adults die in nursing homes or in hospitals bringing about a discrepancy that asserts that old age is the verge of giving up. The evidence of old age and death are evident in the essay are the author provide a constant reference to them which works well for the paper. The use of different views and opinions conjured into a continuous flow is an argumentative approach employed in the journal to connect the audience. The use of testimonials from professionals is prevalent throughout the document indicating that the article is well researched. Evident is from quotations such as Michael Polan argument of “Eat food, not too much and mostly plants”.
A coherent approach to the topic has been provided. The author starts by presenting the common causes of death as old age engulfs an individual. Here a provision of brain volume decrement is provided. After this, the paper takes into providing different citations as evidence material to suppliment the argument presented in the journal. For example, personal experience is used to augment the requirements of joining the physician medical fraternity as quoted from Volandes. In addition, personal experience has been heavily utilized in the text as the author recounts his medical internship at the Hospital of Boston. The reasons for attention and care during old age are presented and attributed to the fear of death. Despite the reality and inevitability of death, no one is open to the idea, and everybody is open to the idea of comfort even in their death bed.
Dying in comfort is a fallacy, one that the paper disapproves through the provision of statistical evidence where a majority of old people die in care homes or hospitals. The constant increase in work in a hospital setting results to low, meaningless relationships between the doctors and the patients. The evidence is provided by the author's experience as an intern where the job involved merely checking the boxes with minimal conversational input from the dying patients. The setting of the essay can be seen to be a hospital setting where conversations are used to draw patients. Here old people are perceived as the patients while the physicians are drawn as the doctors. The use of rhetorical questions is used to engage the audience in the paper where medical jargon is kept to a minimum. The tone of the essay appears stable and dry. However, the subject of death is sorrowful and as such, requires attention to detail and a more consoling tone. 

References
Hamblin, J. (2015). The Fallacy of 'Giving Up' - Health - The Atlantic. Theatlantic.com.     Retrieved 3 February 2015, from    <http://www.theatlantic.com/health/print/2015/01/dying-better/384626/>

The Evolution of Diet

The Evolution of Diet
Health problems and short lifespan have become the greatest problem in the modern society with most health professionals implicating this problem to the diet routine. Dr. Loren Cordain through his explanation in the ‘Paleo diet’ demonstrates that by people satisfying themselves with delicious meals such as meat, fish, non-starchy vegetables, fresh fruits and snacks, people can treat and prevent heart diseases, osteoporosis, cancer, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and associated illnesses (National Geographic).
Cordain argues that the eating of meat, fish, veggies, fresh fruits, seeds and nuts and other food categories that made up the diet of the Paleolithic age is the healthiest way to eat. The reason for such a preference is that the foods makeup the nutritional approach that our bodies were genetically designed to utilize. He argues that Paleo diet is proved by natural selection to help people stay active, energetic, lean and strong, manage weight and fight diseases while enjoying delicious and satisfying meals.
In contrast to Cordain’s view, Gibbon in his work The Evolution of Diet demonstrates how a group of people eat the same diet but suffer from the same diseases (National Geographic). A good example is his comparison between hunters and gatherers. Those who source their foods from hunting lead a healthy life, free of diseases. The group of people from the community of hunters and gatherers who decided to domesticate the animals from where they get the meat and milk, and also grow the crops in their firms where they get fresh fruits, veggie and nuts suffer from indicators of ill health such as obesity and illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, heart diseases and the associated lifestyle diseases.
This thesis demonstrates that though eating like our ancestors make us healthier, there is no singular ideal diet. The hallmark of healthy living is the ability of human beings to adapt to many habitats, which involves combining different foods to create a healthy diet.
Cordain argues that we should adopt the in full, the diet of the people of the Paleolithic age. This involves meat fresh fruits, fish and non-starchy vegetables. We should first evaluate whether this diet is attainable in the modern generation, especially where the highest proportion of people are peasants and the urban poor. Gibbons argues that the population is growing at an alarming rate. The paleo age had meat making up about 90 % of their diet (National Geographic). Adopting a diet that revolves around meat and dairy will strain the world’s resources to exhaustion than the one where a greater proportion of the diet is unrefined fruits, vegetables, fruits and nuts. The population that fully depends on the paleo diet will soon be reduced in size and move into extinction. An example is the emergence of Agriculture that pushed nomadic hunter gatherers off prime farmland, limiting them to the Amazon forests, remote southeastern Asian islands, the Arctic Tundra and the African grasslands. In the modern times, only few insignificant hunter gatherer tribes remain on Earth (National Geographic). The survey that Gibbon conducts on a sample of hunter-gather families indicate that the meal is not enough to live on. The world climatic conditions and the population explosion are unwelcoming to those who fully adopt the Paleolithic age diet. In as much as the diet is healthier, it begs the question on the chances of one surviving in this world with such hundred percent diets. 
 The studies that were done on the foragers such as the Tsimane, Hadza and the Arctic Inuita indicate that these people for many years in the past did not develop atherosis, high blood pressure or cardiovascular diseases. Evolutionary nutritionists attest that the diet ideally fits the genetic makeup of humans. The evolutionary nutritionists studied the diet of the living hunter-gatherers and identified that 73 % of these people sourced a greater percentage of their calories from meat. Based on this study, Cordain coined the paleo prescription where he advocated the eating of plenty fish and lean meat, but discouraged the consumption of foods introduced after the consumption of agriculture and cooking such as dairy products and cereal grains (National Geographic). Gibbon argues that most posh families have meat making up the greatest proportion of their diet. Grilled meat is all over in posh joints and entertainment spots. The same population is greatly affected by the lifestyle diseases. The diseases include cancer, high blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases. This clearly shows that there is a mismatch in the human’s adaptation to their habitats or a mismatch in the combination of different foods to create a healthy diet.
Cordain argues that the bodies of humans have evolved to consume meat, from the standpoint of the presence of the relevant enzymes in the body such as proteases. Gibbon, on the other hand, argues that red meat is bulky in to digest, which leads to humans developing large guts. He advocates the consumption of greens as a greater proportion of the diet. The vegetarians share in the same school of thought. In an attack on this lifestyle, Cordain argues that vegetarian diets lack vitamin B12, and animal foods are the only important sources of these vitamins. Vegetarians become deficient of these important nutrients, impairing their health and survival. Cordain further argues that a study published in the vegetarian's magazine revealed that there is no significant difference in the mortality rates between vegetarians and the people who eat animal proteins. The evolutionary evidence shows that whenever animal foods were available, hunter-gatherers preferred them to plant foods.
In conclusion, the assertion that “The Evolution of Diet” begins with a question: “Could eating like our ancestors make us healthier?” holds true in the above discussion. Loren Cordain, the founder of the “Paleo Diet” answers this question resolutely in the affirmative, but in “The Evolution of Diet” Gibbons presents scientific evidence that casts doubt on the claims made by Cordain and others that advocate a return to the diet of our pre-agricultural ancestors. Studies suggest that indigenous groups face trouble whenever they abandon their traditional eating habits and lifestyles in favor of the western way of life. This can be cited as the reason for the occurrence of some diseases. For instance, in the Maya community, diabetes was never known prior to the 1950s, when the people started adopting the western culture. Such an observation that dates back in history is argument able a concluding factor that indicates that poor eating habits are the source of diseases. It is evident therefore, that the evolution of diet and new means of eating habits does not directly relate to good health. Therefore, focusing on the theory of Loren Cordian, it is true that eating like our ancestors will make us healthier.

Works cited

National Geographic,. 'The Evolution Of Diet'. N.p., 2014. Web. 5 Nov. 2014.

The Belmont Report

The Belmont Report 
The report emphasizes on a set of principles aimed at regulating the modern medical fraternity in its provision of healthcare and research ("Principles of the Belmont Report," n.d.). The principles embedded within emphasize respect for the voluntary nature of participation in research, valid and informed consent and the need for the investigator to guarantee and ensure the welfare of the participants. The ethical principles as stipulated in the report are as follows.
Ø  Respect for persons- the principle has two considerations. First, the research participant is to be treated as an autonomous being. Second, the law requires protection of those incapable of making decisions such as children and the sick from coercion by others. Respect demands that participants enter a research program voluntary and well-informed concerning the research goals.
Ø  Beneficence- involves doing well to the individual. The principle requires doing no harm and increase the benefits while minimizing the possible damages. The principle obligates the society and the investigator. The community is needed to think about the long-term advantages and risks of the program while the researchers are required to plan for maximizing profits and minimizing risks.
Ø  Justice- the report outlines the benefits and harms to the participants of the research. The principle requires that the harms and benefits of the research be uniformly distributed. Constant monitoring of research participants is required to determine whether a systematic selection approach is adopted only due to availability or due to vulnerability or manipulation. Justice ensures that reasons pertaining to the research are used in the selection process.
The above three principles regulate the application of comprehensive ethical principles in research that involves human participants. However, a critical ingredient in the respect for the rights of the members is the informed consent theory ("Belmont Report | HHS.gov," n.d.). The consent document stipulates in summation the information to be provided to the member.


References
The Belmont Report | HHS.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html
The Principles of the Belmont Report. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.brynmawr.edu/ceo/students/ethics/belmontreport.html


Marriage Is a Private Affair

Marriage Is a Private Affair
 "Marriage Is a Private Affair" is a story based on old times. The view of the story assumes that people are becoming more and freer to decide their lives and less worried with opinions (Achebe). In other words, according to some people, the lovers wish is the paramount decision that should determine the union. Although I would concede that some have a good point when saying, a couple is the main thing needed on a marriage, I still think that marriage is not a private affair. My claim is that the story basis what happens to almost every family in the world. At least, it is pretty much the same as I see on movies, stories and in my country. In other words, I believe that opinions, advises, encouragements coming from people that care about us, influence our ideas about marriage.
My view basis on the idea that marriage means social union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between them, their kids, and their in-laws. The idea is evident in the passage where the woman is sad as his lover has not informed his parents about her.  Another point is when the kid is sad because he cannot meet his grandfather. In addition, his dad is sad because the kid is sad, so it is like a snowball rolling affecting people that are directly connected to the couple. Some may disagree with my assumption that the advice of parents, for example, is very important for the decision of a couple. Parents act as strongholds and sources of experiences where aspiring couples learn responsibilities and roles to be parents in the future.  To this idea, I would respond that relatives show us what they think is right and wrong, and with or without intention, it affects decision making. Furthermore, the last decision is from the couple, of course, but others have a big influence.
In many countries, especially the African continent, parents feel obligated to show their children the difference between right and wrong. However, in most cases, this obligation is exaggerated and extended to matters of personal decision making. According to the suitor’s father, he argues that ‘he owes to his son, as a duty "to show him what is right and what is wrong’" (Achebe). The implication is that any personal ideas are not welcome. Such ideas are the works of Satan, and he compares them to a person having cut off his son’s throat (Achebe). In a lay man’s language, this implies that the lack of say in the child’s life is equivalent to having them dead. However, if marriage is a union that aims at bringing the families together through unity and companionship, then the idea of imposing jurisdiction where it is not due cannot be tolerated. There are many contradicting theories and opinions held and propagated by different scholars. These views sideline personal views and propagating cultures and determining which culture is superior and better in the decisions and values they make and promote.
In the old days, Shakespeare argues that ‘love is blind, and lovers do not see the things they do all compelled in the name of love’ (Shakespeare and Phelps). From this standpoint, it can be argued that the decision of who to marry lies solely in the suitor’s eyes and mind. However, comparing this view to the analysis provided by Chinua Achebe, a paradox can be observed. In the story, Nnaemeka is hesitant to make a commitment to his lover despite the love he has for her. The bottom line is especially because of fear and the consideration of his father’s opinion. He values the opinions and views that the society has instilled in the function of marriage. On the contrary, he is willing to defy the order of the society and his father’s opinion.
If a marriage is a private affair, then the society has no say or obligation inn the matter (PURCELL). However, this is contrary to what the author upholds in the story. According to his view, the parents and the society are mending in the affairs of the individual when it comes to choosing who to marry. There is one thing that the society overlooks in this case; they are not the ones to spend their entire lives with the individual. From a biblical perspective, one has the freedom to choose what pleases him based on the bottom line that till death do they part. Therefore, if a decision surpasses in such a turning point in an individual’s life, it will affect their entire lives. A conjecture can uprises on the lines of religion and upbringing. Different societies practice different faiths, beliefs and observe different holistic nomenclature. All these are the determining factors that correlate the needs of the society and their expectations from their members.
It is human nature to enjoy and exercise the right and freedom of choice. If one has no ability to determine for themselves who to marry and when, one is inclined to feel that their freedom of choice is being suppressed. The need to break loose from such chains be it societal based or family based leads to drastic changes in the mode of decision making. In most instances, a sharp gap or individual relation exists one the individual starts acting out of line and away from the expectations of the society. The society sidelines they and treats them as outcasts and not respected or valued as instruments of change. If such a scenario occurs during the decision-making process of a marriage, the institution stops to be one that brings unity, but poses division and results to feelings of hatred.
The opinion that marriage is a private affair is valid and has been seen to result into unquestionable choices that individuals can relate. If the decision to marry an individual is one that is free, then the two will be well equipped to challenges that they may face later in their marriage lives. However, in most cultures, the elders have an exclusive say on who one is to marry and their supporting reasons for the same. In the story, for example, when Nnaemeka breaks the news to his father the resulting questions are the girl's background and who her are her parents (Achebe). In this case, society has inculcated the view "that the fruit does not fall far from the tree" (Madden).  If an individual hails from a certain society or family, one will exhibit the characteristics, practices and norms either good or bad of their people; this is the implication.
Character is hewed based on the decision of the individual. The belief that one is only inculcated to the society based on what their predecessors practice or belief is not entirely true. If the decision on who to marry and live with is free and not imposed on an individual, norms and practices are bent to change. The idea is that such a belief will not crop from a society setup but on a family background. The family finds itself on love, mutual consent, and the upbringing of the children will promote the essence of personal decision making without interference (Madden). The inference is that the resulting generation will practice independence making marriage a private affair.


Works cited
Achebe, Chinua. 'Marriage Is A Private Affair'. World Literature. Ed. Joe Smith. New York:                       Prentice Hall (2003): 1202--05. Print.
Madden, Frank. Exploring Literature. 1st ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2009. Print.
PURCELL, William F. 'CONVERTING CULTURE: READING CHINUA ACHEBE's                                       MARRIAGE IS A PRIVATE AFFAIR IN LIGHT OF BERNARD LONERGAN's                    THEOLOGY OF CONVERSION'. Religion \& literature 45.1 (2013): n. pag. Print.
Shakespeare, William, and William Lyon Phelps. The Merchant Of Venice. 1st ed. New Haven:                  Yale University Press, 1923. Print.

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