Medicine and health

Medicine and Health

The advanced exercise programs are essential workouts that are routinely carried out so as enhance the trainer efficiency and best performing.  Boxer is a sport person who partakes in combat matches (Fink & Sugar, 1997). The match involve two people challenging for their strength, reflexes endurance, will and speed. Boxers engage in throwing punches to their contester with an aim of weakening and knocking down the opponent. In amateur boxing sport winning boxers compete up to the world cup level. The referee gives out the results when he finds that either one of the competitor is incapable to punch, or breaking the rules or even resigns by the act of throwing in the towel, or when winning the game or losing depending on the rule of the score cards (Pierce, Reinbold, Lyngard, Goldman & Pastore, 2006). If the boxers score the same points, then the fight is ruled out as a draw. Boxing has a historical trend which is known from the Greek Olympic game back in BC 688. (Fink & Sugar, 1997)
                        Functional movement screening is a Pre-participation and pre-season athletic screening measures that are well designed mechanisms of international sport programs. They seizures the fundamental movements patterns, the knowledge of basic activities. It is useful in determining the essential areas of movement deficiency, showing the disadvantages and finally correlating these with the result achieved .FMS are employed to recognize the likely risk influences that are thought to drive to injury and illness (Fink & Sugar, 1997). Screening measures are also employed in preventing injury occurrences. These procedures are sensitized to the boxers through counselling processes to these individuals with certain sport functional shortfalls, establishing rehabilitation programs and enhancing sporting performance. Formerly, screening measures were meant to be sport specific. They were used in identifying factors that would eliminate an individual partaking in certain boxing activities and also were used to pinpoint the specific boxing talent. In contrary there is mistaken belief that screens by prevent injury. This has been confronted because they give only individual information that is grounded on standardized exercise endorsements, hence risking the boxer’s specific needs. (Fink & Sugar, 1997)
The problem is currently evaluated through shifting screening to a more functional methodology. The noticeable biochemical deficits in movement patterns are assumed to limits boxer performance hence causing injuries. The essential fundamental movements gives the opportunity in establishing a best training program. The newly designed evaluating movement patterns on  screening assessments  is the Functional Movement Screen TM (FMSTM ).it is a screen that inconclusively has   pre-season and pre -participation screen that test on seven movements that disables the athlete to perform in his grounded movement patterns that involve combination of muscles strength , balance and coordination (Pierce, Reinbold, Lyngard, Goldman & Pastore, 2006) . Screening is therefore an instrument measuring the rate and ranking of such movements. FMSTM it core objective is to assess the body’s kinetic chain system (Baird et al., 2010). It gives information that determines whether the boxer has challenges that affect stabilization and mobility. Its use has grater positive impact on reducing the injury risk towards the boxer and also putting in place the preventive measure on such injury. (Fink & Sugar, 1997)
. The establishment of a normative data set with a contracted confidence interval provides the athlete trainers with a reference standard to compare their self-data inside a young heath group. More so, further studies can be a source of reference to the young sport groups towards participating in their boxing career hence reducing injury rates. While running the FMS, there are key careful bony structure that need to be considered. The boxer therefore should be careful on the tibial tuberosity, anterior superior iliac spines, lateral and medial malleolus, the most distal wrist crease and the joint line of the knee when training (Frederick, 2012). The two things to be considered when observing the movement of the screening are the distance and the movements. The distance need to be an average far away standing so as to allow a more global focus and clear evident to be tested. The boxer has three attempts to perform in each test hence the constant moving around for instance the in the Grey cook’s 7 test.
The most appropriate fitness test for evaluating a boxer fitness level. Fitness is a very significant towards the boxers being excellent in fighting (Noonan, 2015). The fitness level should equip the boxer with best stamina speed, agility, and power. Boxers need to be careful in keeping their body fit and modifying their training to maintain their best potential. The relevance boxer’s fitness techniques include the following;
Body fat- in determining the boxer’s body fats the skinfold measures are used. The skinfold calipers equipment units in mm is used in different skin fold site on the body and the average measurement is determined. The boxers should be cross check the site sampling average measurement against the standardized interval of units. Table 1.below shows the interval unit

Below average
It is recommended that the boxer should have a lean body as possible to maximize the muscles for his weight category. (Fink & Sugar, 1997
The aerobic fitness. The boxer should have a successive enduring fitness. The beep test is employed to estimate the aerobic fitness. It involves continuous running between two lines 20m apart in time so as to record beeps.  The initial starting speed is 8.5km/hr. and after every one minute the speed increases by 0.5km/hr (Baird et al., 2010).  Recording the beeps and the test is stopped when the boxer fails to reach the line at a distance of 2m at repeated ends after warning of the recorder (Bledsoe, Li & Levy, 2005). The score of evaluation is determined for the successive 20m run before stopping. More so factors like running skills, turning method, aerobic capacity, and motor skills should be put in place (Noonan, 2015). The boxers norm is based on his/her experience on the beep test. The beep test for standardized score is highlighted in the following norm table 2.

Very Good
Very Poor
<4 o:p="">

<5 o:p="">

The importance of boxers having higher aerobic fitness is to reduce the impact if fatigue when fighting and thus helping them to have concentration and maintaining the skills when under pressure.  (Frederick, 2012).
Agility and balance- Boxers are subjected to agility jump test. Also quadrant jump test and quick feet tests are important. The 45 sec agility hurdle jump is carried out with recorded times of jumps. The score is determined by the number of total jumps. The balance and the agility jump test have significance on the boxer’s quickness when fighting and regulating their movement around the ring.
Flexibility - The shoulder flexibility test and the sit and the reach test are very important for the boxers especially for the lower back and is aimed to prevent injury to the shoulders especially when punching (Pierce, Reinbold, Lyngard, Goldman & Pastore, 2006). A tape measure is used to determine the best rating score for both shoulders. It is rated fair when the in between fingers distance is less than 5cm and poor when it is more than 5cm along the shoulders blade. Therefore the flexibility test should be specific to the actions of should include the trunk and the shoulder region. (Frederick, 2012).
Speed fitness – Boxers quick punching speed should be determined. The striking speed can be measured directly though the peak punch on the 100 pound heavy punching bag against recorded time. This will enable to measure the sustained striking power. Boxers need to have speed around the ring and when fighting the opponents for them to win. . (Frederick, 2012).
Boxers punching power is also evaluated. It is a component of the SPARQ rating systems for the boxer. Boxer maximum punching power on the punching bag is usually evaluated. Boxer’s average power score is given in units of force/surface area that is pound per square inch (Murphy & Sheard, 2006). The upper body power and strength is tested using the upper body arm crank ergometer (Shum, Komura & Nagano, 2007). The score is evaluated as the peak and the average upper body power recorded which is divided by the boxer’s body weight resulting in relative scores. The power and the strength increases the boxer’s chance of winning the fight. (Grabowski, 2004).
Strength that a boxer have is another determinant that need to be evaluated. The two test a boxer undergoes are the hand grip strength test and the maximal strength tests in their training exercises. Equipment like hand grip dynamometer are used to measure the maximum isometric power of the fore arm muscles and the hand. A boxer’s score is cross checked against the tabulated rated score. Table 3

Very good
Above average
Below average
Very poor
<88 o:p="">

<40 o:p="">
<44 o:p="">
<20 o:p="">

It is useful in determining the strength levels so as to observe the changes encountered during boxing training programs.
Another fitness evaluation is the strength endurance .The abdominal strength are measured by sit up tests while the upper body strength is evaluated and measured the push up test. Following the right procedure, a boxer tests the abdominal endurance strength and the score is determined as a count of a complete sit up to in the time set up to level of fatigue (Murphy & Sheard, 2006). The strength endurance help in assessing the abilities a boxer has in performing the repeated strength movements. It also have greater importance on the back and abdominal stability. Push up score relies on the number of the complete push up a boxer undertakes. (Grabowski, 2004).
The reaction time -The boxers usually undergo a light board tests to evaluate the reaction time, hand-eye speed, and coordination. The equipment used in this activity are the BOSUTM ball and the instrumented light board.  The boxer score is the number of lights that are pressed during the test out of the possible 90. Reaction time fitness have significant for the evasion skills of a boxer. (Hickey, 2006).
Movement assessment
There are a lot of movement that boxer needs to be aware of and helps him acquire excellent performance during fighting (Cantu, 2006). Boxing movement can be described as the leg and the upper body and the feet being static. The importance of these basic movement is help the boxer have the defensive tactics to the incoming punches (Armstrong, 1996). A boxer can roll or duck or slip in a proactive defensing setting or block or parry if he is not reactive. Boxing movement also acts as a deceitful tactics to the opponent and more so generating leverage for their punches especially hook shots. Punching is a basic trained movement that should be evaluated on the basic rules and types (Shum, Komura & Nagano, 2007). A boxer should be able to understand both the displacing and stationary movements. Displacing movement should be used when a boxer wants to move around the ring in a relaxed way especially the upper body, while the stationary should be used when he wants to generate power or direct power at different positions (Frederick, 2012). While punching it should always be in static movement because it does not waste much energy as in displacement movement hence becoming exhausted easily. Boxers should not engage themselves in jumping moves so as to conserve striking energy and allow feet to be in a more stable position to counter attack. The rotation movement should be adopted to enhance concentration and able to create power (Cordes, 1991). A boxer should be able to control his body movements and develop skills to measure his reach distances in the ring. The core, back and legs body muscle should be power enduring and flexible and quick, and have accurate coordination (Murphy & Sheard, 2006). Movement should be effective and should be confused with displacement. Boxers should concentrate on the techniques that seem easy to them so as to have ease in movement. They should be able to punch accurately and powerful and skills in jab, cross, hook and uppercut punch types.
Over all goals.
A boxer should always maintain a whole body agility to enhance excellent participating and prevent injury through the match and training sessions. He should have quick moves and able to sustain speed and power while punching (Baird et al., 2010). The body of a boxer should be as lean as possible so as maintain a masculine body. They should also have an aerobic fitness so as not getting fatigue while fighting. (Hickey, 2006).
Program design.
Boxing training programs must emphasize on the reaction power, muscular stability, anaerobic and aerobic endurance and the power sustaining.  The preparation training should help a boxer to be physical fit for the match and therefore periodization of boxing somehow looks different (Shum, Komura & Nagano, 2007). The VO2max and the anaerobic threshold enhances the boxers to perform best in the ring. The boxing training programs should be designed in such a way that the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems are incorporated in them (Armstrong, 1996). The current set programs are very specific on the training work outs of every sport activity. They have a complete boxing plans and meal plan and designed on the training cycles. The programs are structured in a way that boxing work outs are based on the cycles of 24 weeks (Dunzendorfer, 2013). There cycles known as macrocycle which involves a predetermined period of 24 weeks. Then the macrocycle are broken up into eight equal periods known as the mesocyles of three weeks each. The mesocycles emphasizes on speed conditions and agility skills. The mesocycles are designed prior to the skills on the other past one. By the end of the macrocycle speed phases the boxer will have best improving work out and excellent performing (Frederick, 2012). The mesocycles on the speed progressively gets harder as a boxer continues practicing. This give the best fit of a boxer body and acts on the facets affecting the boxer. This can be schedule as;
24 Macro cycle for a boxer
Type of exercise
Type of work out
First mesocyle
Week one
Push up, chin up, vertical extension
Week two
One leg balance and wean in weave out
Week three
Plank and squats and chest isometric
Second mesocycle
Week 4
Double leg bound and side hop
Week 5
Planks, squats shoulder and chest isometric
Week 6
Walking while punching and one leg balance
Third mesocycle
Week 7
Throwing the ball and parallel bar grip
Week 8
Squats jumps and side hop
Week 9
Plank and squats
Fourth mesocycle
Week 10
Weave in weave out and one leg balance
Week 11
Dips, push-ups and chin up
Week 12
Medicine ball twist and side hop
Fifth mesocycle
Week 13
Chest ,planks and squat (Baird et al., 2010)
Week 14
One leg balance and arm swing
Week 15
Vertical extension  and throwing the ball or push up
Sixth mesocycle
Week 16
Double leg bound and squats jump
Week 17
Plank, shoulder and chest
Week 18
One leg balance  and weave in weave out
Seventh mesocycle
Week 19
Throwing the ball , dips and chin up (Shum, Komura & Nagano, 2007)
Week 20
Side hops and  squat jumps
Week 21
Plank and squat
Eighth mesocycle
Week 22
Arm swing and weave in weave out
Week 23
Push up and chin up
Week 24
Plank and squat jump

Monitoring and evaluation
The sessions should be evaluated based on each mesocycle activities. This should emphasize on the abilities and techniques acquired after the macrocyle period (Armstrong, 1996). In the macrocycle, the four exercises are repeated six times hence the boxer trainer is able to determine the improvement and effectiveness of every work out under every exercise for the whole 24 weeks macrocycle. For the physical work out the couch should evaluate the speed, strength and endurance (Armstrong, 1996). The couch should also observe the tactics a boxer has especially when heavy bag punching, watch the distance and the accuracy and head movements. (Mason, 2011)

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Pierce, J., Reinbold, K., Lyngard, B., Goldman, R., & Pastore, C. (2006). Direct Measurement of             Punch Force During Six Professional Boxing Matches. Journal Of Quantitative Analysis    In Sports, 2(2). doi:10.2202/1559-0410.1004