American History

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QUESTION 1 
 Most criminal offenses are made and enforced at the state level. 
 True 
 False 
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QUESTION 2 
  
The Constitution of the United States prohibits states from adopting laws that are not identical with laws previously adopted by other states. 

 True 
 False 
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QUESTION 3 


The problem with common law crimes such as rape, burglary, and arson is that their definition limits the scope of their use. 

 True 
 False 
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QUESTION 4 


The supreme court of one state is not bound by the decisions of the supreme court of another state, even where the supreme court of the other state has already interpreted the exact same language in an identical statute passed by its state legislature. 

 True 
 False 
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QUESTION 5 


To be valid and enforceable, criminal laws must specifically describe the conduct that is prohibited, and declare its commission to be a crime. 

 True 
 False 
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QUESTION 6 


Under modern statutory arson laws, a person who blows up a building using gasoline can be charged with arson, but a person who uses dynamite cannot. 

 True 
 False 
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QUESTION 7 


Volunteer fire companies can be considered to be independent private-sector entities for some purposes, but be engaged in a public-sector function for others. 

 True 
 False 
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QUESTION 8 

The U.S. Constitution requires that all juries in the United States must have twelve jurors. 

 True 
 False 
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QUESTION 9 

The federal government is said to be a government of limited powers, with most jurisdictional power left to the states. 

 True 
 False 
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QUESTION 10 

The term common law refers to judge-made law that developed in England. 

 True 
 False 
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QUESTION 11 


A criminal defense that calls into question the fairness of police conduct, where the conduct of law enforcement personnel would be likely to induce a normally law-abiding person to commit the offense, is called 

              
extortion. 

              
entrapment. 

              
due process. 

              
diminished capacity. 

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QUESTION 12 


In which of the following situations would self-defense be valid criminal defense? 

              

Able calls Baker and threatens to kill him the next time they see each other. Baker immediately goes to Able's house and kills him. 

              

Able is hiding in the bushes waiting for Baker to collect money owed. Baker sees Able, sneaks up behind him, and shoots him. 

              

Able confronts Baker on a street and says he wants to fight. Baker takes out a gun and shoots Able. 

              

Able breaks into Baker's house while Baker is sleeping. Baker wakes up, Able tries to strike Baker with a club, and Baker shoots Able. 

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QUESTION 13 


The exclusionary rule does not apply to exclude evidence that is seized in violation of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments if the 

              

defendant is really guilty. 

              
evidence is overwhelming. 

              

defendant lacks standing. 

              

defendant committed the same crime within the past 10 years. 

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QUESTION 14 

A basic premise of collective bargaining is that both sides must bargain in good faith. Bargaining in good faith requires both parties to make a concession or change a position. 

            1.          
Both statements are true. 

            2.          
The first statement is true; the second is false. 

            3.          
The first statement is false; the second is true. 

            4.          
Both statements are false. 

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QUESTION 15 

A fire department allows firefighters who have a medical condition that prohibits them from shaving to wear beards and retain their jobs provided they submit medical documentation from their physician of their medical condition. Can this fire department lawfully prohibit firefighters from wearing beards for religious reasons? 
  
              
Yes 

              
No 

              
Maybe 

              
I haven't bought the book therefore I have no idea. 

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QUESTION 16 

A firefighter who refuses to respond to a certain type of facility in his or her community due to religious beliefs 

            1.          
must be accommodated, preferably with a transfer to a different station that does not respond to such a facility. 

            2.          
must be accommodated by being allowed to remain off the objectionable property. 

            3.          
need not be accommodated and may even be terminated.  

            4.          
none of the above. 

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QUESTION 17 

A plea of ____ is neither admitting nor denying the commission of the crime but agreeing that the evidence is sufficient to establish guilt. 

              
guilty 

              
guilty but I had no choice 

              
not guilty 

              
nolo contendere 

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QUESTION 18 

All of the following are elements of negligence except 


              
an act or omission. 


              
last clear chance. 


              
breach of the standard of care. 


              
damages. 


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QUESTION 19 

An example of a type of permitted contact with another person that would not be considered  battery is 


              
socially acceptable contact such as a tap on the shoulder. 

              
contact that is consented to. 

              
jostling and bumping on a crowded subway. 

              
all the above 

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QUESTION 20 

Contracts between fire departments, fire districts, and municipalities to provide for assistance in the event of an emergency are called 
  

            1.          
mutual aid agreements. 

            2.          
mutual compacts. 

            3.          
special aid agreements. 

            4.          
emergency assistance contracts. 

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QUESTION 21 

In a negligence case where the professional standard of care is an issue, evidence of the standard of care could include 

              
testimony of expert witnesses. 


              
learned treatises. 

              
industrywide standards. 

              
All the above 

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QUESTION 22 

In the aftermath of large-loss-of-life fires such as the Beverly Hills Supper Club fire and the Hamlet, North Carolina, chicken processing plant fire, governmental actors find themselves subject to lawsuits. One of the emerging legal protections that such governmental actors have is not based on sovereign immunity or statutory immunity, but rather is based upon the 


              
public duty doctrine. 

              
lack of funds. 

              
insurance waiver doctrine. 


              
Fireman's Rule. 

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QUESTION 23 

One of the most significant differences between employment in the public sector versus private sector is the fact that ____ is applicable to public employees who have a property interest in their employment. 
            1.          
collective bargaining 

            2.          
civil service 

            3.          
due process 

            4.          
arbitration 

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QUESTION 24 

Sexual harassment is a form of gender-based sex discrimination prohibited by the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Sexual harassment includes unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature, when submission to or rejection of this conduct affects an individual's employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual's work performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment. 

            1.          
Both statements are true. 

            2.          
The first statement is true; the second is false. 

            3.          
The first statement is true; the second is false. 

            4.          
Both statements are false. 

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QUESTION 25 

Sexual harassment of men by other men can occur, as can harassment of women by other women, and harassment of men by women. However, a person╒s sexual orientation is highly relevant in such cases, as by definition heterosexual men cannot be guilty of sexually harassing other heterosexual men. 

            1.          
Both statements are true. 

            2.          
The first statement is true; the second is false. 

            3.          
The first statement is false; the second is true. 

            4.          
Both statements are false. 

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QUESTION 26 

Statutory immunity 

              
is another name for sovereign immunity. 

              
arises when legislatures enact laws that provide immunity protection. 

              
is not real immunity protection. 

              
leaves fire departments vulnerable to lawsuits. 


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QUESTION 27 

The Volunteer Protection Act of 1997 provides individuals who volunteer with immunity from negligence suits, but does not include protection for gross negligence, recklessness, or intentional acts, nor does it offer protection for suits arising out of the operation of a motor vehicle. The Volunteer Protection Act also provides immunity protection for the charitable organization. 


              
Both statements are true. 

              
The first statement is true; the second is false. 

              
The first statement is false; the second is true. 


              
Both statements are false. 


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QUESTION 28 

The ____ is a defense to lawsuits filed by firefighters and police officers who are injured in the line of duty, against persons who (1) negligently caused the incident to which they responded, or (2) negligently create a dangerous condition at the scene that caused their injuries. 


              
assumption of risk doctrine 

              
Fireman's Rule 

              
last clear chance doctrine 

              
landowner's homestead rule 

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QUESTION 29 

The legal term referring to the fact that the act in question was the legal cause of the harm that resulted is 


              
legal cause. 


              
causality. 


              
approximate cause. 

              
proximate cause. 


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QUESTION 30 

The rights of public-sector firefighters to bargain collectively are primarily governed by ____ law. 

            1.          
federal 

            2.          
state 

            3.          
local 

            4.          
 common 

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QUESTION 31 

The term tort is a general term for 

              
a civil wrong. 

              
a petty crime. 

              
carelessness. 

              
damages. 

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QUESTION 32 

The tort of battery is 

              
placing another in apprehension of imminent contact. 


              
an intentional unpermitted contact with another person. 


              
willful, wanton striking of another, resulting in bodily injury. 

              
an example of carelessness. 

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QUESTION 33 

There are ____ distinct torts that fall under the umbrella of invasion of privacy. 


              
two 

              

four


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