Jesus the Good Shepherd

The good shepherd; Jesus
According to the gospel of Saint John, Jesus is portrayed as the good shepherd.  “The good shepherd always lays down his life for his sheep” (John 10:11). During the time of birth of Jesus, shepherds were considered important people in the society. They played an important role as they were the first to visit baby Jesus when he was born in the manger.  The shepherds were invited by the angels and not by mere mortals. The implication signifies Jesus as part of the shepherds and this is why they came to pay their respect during his birth. As Jesus grew in favor of men and God, he had a soft spot for shepherds. As a savior for humanity, he is depicted as possessing a warm feeling towards the shepherds although he refers himself as the good shepherd; not of sheep but men.
In an exposition analogy in John chapter ten, he recounts to his followers of how a shepherd enters into the door of the sheepfold openly and without sneaking. Therefore, this attribute makes the sheep conversant with the shepherds’ voice and in relation the shepherd knows the sheep by name, and he leads them out (Biblegateway.com, 2014). The trust, confidence and love that the sheep have for the shepherd makes them follow. Contextualizing this parable, Jesus is seen as a man of character, loved by his followers and highly trusted. Jesus knows all his followers by name making him the good shepherd. Looking closely to the relationship that Jesus had with his disciples, he is indeed a good Shepherd. Just like the sheep follow the shepherd, His disciples followed him wherever he went. They abandoned their works and were fully involved in the evangelizing ministry with Jesus as the leader. He finds green pastures for his flock. Jesus says, “I am the door: if a man enters via me, they shall find pasture and be saved” (John 10:15).
To the believers, Jesus did not only bring life but life in abundance. As a gift of the gospel, if believers understand the importance of Jesus and who he is, they get the most out of their time on earth. He emphasized that as the good shepherd he is not like a hired hands man. A hired man will see the wolf coming while in pasture and will leave the flock and flee for safety and refuge. Since he does not own the sheep, he has little concern for the same. The name Jesus, as interpreted in the Hebrew context was Emmanuel and means God with his people. He will never forsake nor leave those he has appointed not even in the face of a sheer danger (Shepherd?, 2014). Therefore, e is a cornerstone of comfort, a refuge in the times of sorrow and challenges. Jesus, therefore, qualifies as the good shepherd.
In the history of Christianity, Jesus is the author and finisher of our faith. As a good shepherd, He knows his followers, and it was from mercy that he chose to leave his comfort zone in heaven and come to salvage humanity. He faced trials and temptations in his quest to redeem humankind and out of choice he stayed to face Satan and defend his flock. In his analogy, he says “as a father knows me, even so do I know Him: and I lay down my life for the sheep” (John 10:15). This indicates that Jesus knew what he was doing and did not lead his sheep blindly. He had a destination for them. In john 14:2, Jesus states that “In my father’s house there are many rooms, if this was not so I would have told you. Behold, I go forth to prepare a place for you” (John 14:2). When the place was done, Jesus promised to come for his followers so that where he is they may be there also. However, like any other god shepherd, he did not leave his flock unattended, he was to send a helper. The help is the Holy Ghost. He was to guide and take care of the flock in the absence of Jesus.
Jesus identifies the Pharisees as the evil shepherds as illuminated in Ezekiel chapter 34.  They had expelled from the flock of God the man whom God himself had appointed. They were solely responsible for scattering the sheep that was contrary to the sole mission of Jesus; gathering the flock (Wright, 1939). As opposed to the official Judaism, Jesus refers to his followers as people who follow him as opposed to the leaders of Israel. As a good shepherd, Jesus is contextualizing the divine purpose of His intention from creation. The works and events in the life of Jesus are a reflection of responsible, caring and divine purpose for the purpose of saving mankind from the daunting challenges of sin. He comforted the weary, healed the sick, opened the eyes of the blind, and even provided for the poor which correlates with the attitudes and purpose of a good shepherd.
The aspects of a good shepherd are reflected in the life of Jesus. To date, since He is regarded as the savior of humanity, and no one can go to the father without passing through Jesus, His mission on earth as the good shepherd is seen. In Revelation, Jesus stands at the door and knocks if a man hears his still small voice Jesus urges them to open as he will enter and dine with them. It is the responsibility of the good Shepherd to look after his sheep and Jesus does this very well.


References
Biblegateway.com,. (2014). John 10 Commentary - Jesus Is the Good Shepherd Who Is     Gathering His Flock - BibleGateway.com. Retrieved 1 November 2014, from             https://www.biblegateway.com/resources/commentaries/IVP-NT/John/Jesus-Good-            Shepherd-Who-Flock
Shepherd?, W. (2014). Why is Jesus Called the Good Shepherd?. Jesus Christ. Retrieved 1            November 2014, from http://jesus.christ.org/questions-answers-about-jesus-christ/why-is-        jesus-called-the-good-shepherd

Wright, G. (1939). The Good Shepherd. The Biblical Archaeologist, 2(4), 44--48.

Using text mining and machine learning to leverage unstructured data and detect EWS: A case study of a construction project


Using text mining and machine learning to leverage unstructured data and detect EWS: A case study of a construction project

Abstract- Knowledge Management became the focus of scientific study during the second half of the 20th century. During this time, researchers discovered knowledge resource importance to business organizations. Contrary to early expectations of enhanced management of documents, Management techniques and systems applied in the construction industry fail to deliver the desired performance [1]. Recent research utilizes document content analysis to improve categorization of documents and support retrieval functions. Document text analysis can be performed efficiently using natural language processing. Since project professionals are poor at detecting early warning signs (EWS), identifying the barriers for this cause is critical [17]. Project assessment is useful in identifying EWS associated with the project formalities. This article delivers an unparalleled way to improve the organization of information in organizations and access to inter-organizational systems. The basis is on automated classification of project documents in the construction and in-line with their related project components. Machine learning methods were used for this purpose.
Keywords: Machine learning, early   warning signs, Construction project   management,   unstructured             information, Project assessment

I.     Introduction

The complexity of construction projects makes them prone to failures. Therefore, the introduction of new procurement methods means that many contractors have been forced to rethink their approach to the way risks are treated within their projects and organizations [16]. Project management methodologies can only minimize the risk of failure but cannot guarantee successful completion. However, early prediction of future project trajectory can provide sufficient early warnings and enough time to respond in case significant deviations from the plans are predicted [10]. Such capability requires rapid assessment of project documentation and reports and the ability to infer potential future failures from unstructured information, analysis of emotion and sentiment in the writing style of those reports. Such capability is currently not routinely available.
The research seeks to develop a predictive early warning methodology for project failure prediction by analysing unstructured project documentation such as project reports [15]. Machine learning will be employed to extract from such sources actionable information to compare against project plans and key performance indicators. The research adheres to the developing a project progress assessment methodology encompassing factors affecting project performance. In addition, develop a method and algorithmic approach for the analysis of unstructured project documentation and extraction of key actionable information to allow inference of actual project progress rapidly [9]. The algorithm accompanies the development of a prototype tool tuned against a series of case studies from the literature. Finally it concludes by conducting an empirical study demonstrating the approach.

II.     Why construction projects?

The construction industry is characterized by constant changes. As such, document classification requirements and needs becomes paramount.  In achieving this classification, consideration issues taken into account include:
 • Construction projects are unequalled [5]. Design specification documents contain the plans, formulas, characteristics and implementation plans for construction. The information is both graphic and textual and is communicated to all the stakeholders in the project. Such availability makes construction projects unique. Taking this consideration into account makes an emphasis on these projects relevant to leveraging text mining.
• Dynamic processes are adopted in the construction industry [6]. The design, construction and maintenance is a cycle subject to change over time. There are different concurrent variables that affect the implementation of development projects. Therefore, constant communication must be implemented between the different stakeholders to keep the project phases in sync. The monitoring and tracking poses a challenge which consequently makes construction projects a key area of interest. 
• Construction projects are structurally organized [3]. Each structure is assigned a project team composed of contractors, owners, designers and representatives. The independence of the structures makes construction projects an interesting area of study.
• Despite being structurally organized and independent, there is increased collaboration between the projects that involve exchange of information and data to streamline the performance of the system. Through the collaboration, the realization of differences in size and IT capability emerges. The differences act as a foundation for the design of a classification construction management system.

III.     Early warning signs

Warning signs are prevalent in construction projects. From definition, they are observational signs that form the basis of   proof to the existence of some incipient positive or negative issue [17]. EWS characterize future developments [2]. According to Ansoff’s 1975 [3], there are two available options to a firm that considers preparing against a strategic weak signal surprise. The first option involves a crisis management strategy [9]. The approach ensures that in the event of weak signal communication detection, the activities of the firm are not negatively influenced to a large extent. The second is a mitigation approach where the problem is pre-determined and mitigated to reduce chances of strategic surprises [9]. Attention must be paid to manage both approach to guarantee their success. According to Loosemore, there are three crisis types in a construction project.
1.      Creeping crisis- a type of crisis that is just perceive and not addressed until the effect of the crisis occurs
2.      Sudden crisis- discovered as crisis that occur without prior warning.
3.      Periodic crisis- they occur in cycles some of which are consistent while others are not.

To curb and minimize the effects of crises, contingency plans should be adopted. Implementing such strategies accompanied by a team of professionally trained project management, the influence and impact of the crisis is drastically reduced [15].



Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction

Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction

Abstract

Shock wave boundary layer interaction is a common phenomenon that is experienced and observed in internal flows. The performance of aerodynamics is influenced by the consequences of the shock wave boundary layer interaction. The shock influences the velocity of an aerofoil by subjecting the boundary to the pressure. In this report, various properties of the pressure variable such as absolute pressure, relative pressure and the coefficient of the pressure have been analyzed to determine the effect on the velocity of an aerofoil.  The production of turbulence leads to inclined performance losses in the performance of the aerofoil. Unsteady shock induced separation leads to loss of performance and destruction of the structure of the aerofoil. The need to achieve a balance between the Mac number, pressure, velocity, temperature, Reynolds number, turbulence, angle of inclination among other variables that influence the production of shock waves is the foundation upon which this simulation report has been founded.

Introduction

Shock wave boundary layer interaction are commonly observed in internal flows of high speed especially in compressor blades, turbine cascades, nozzles fans, and butterfly valves to mention but a few (Alshabu, Olivier & Klioutchnikov, 2006).  Unsteady interactions of shock waves at the boundary layer has detrimental results such as buffet flows which are aerodynamic instabilities, shock induced oscillations (SIO) and high cycle fatigue failure (HCF) (Chen, Xu & Lu, 2010). A propensity and need to achieve a balance between the consequences of the layer interactions makes shock wave boundary layer interaction a valid topic of research. Theoretical studies in the area indicate that shock wave layer boundary interaction is a phenomena that is dependent on the Reynolds number (D'enos, Michelassi, Martelli, Arts & Paniagua, 2001). Many studies have revolved around transonic flow in an oscillating airfoil. A study carried out by Tijdeman shows the interaction of the unsteady and steady flow fields and the periodic motion of the shock.  Cascade models are also known to be self-excited due to transonic flow (Hasan, Matsuo, Setoguchi & Sadrul Islam, 2012). Measuring various parameters such as wake motions, static pressure and shock waves indicate that self-excited nature of a shock oscillation is due to a closed loop mechanism. A different proposition was made by Lee on a quantifiable feed-back mechanism of the shock oscillation of a supercritical airfoil flow (Lee, 2001). The results of the experiment were an indication that the time taken for a trailing disturbance to propagate from the shock to the edge was equivalent to the time taken by an upstream movement of a wave from the trailing end to the shock oscillation. The measurements were made at the force spectra which was unsteady (Levy Jr, 1978).
            The above hypothesis will be tested on a real time simulation experiment that will enable comparison of results. Quantified amount of research has been conducted on high speed aerodynamics. However, despite the extensibility of this research, there still lacks a comprehensible understanding of the flow characteristics of an airfoil in a channel. Providing a theoretical approach to the study is not only limited but also not enough. For this reason, this report is committed to providing a numerical analysis of the results of simulation of how shock wave boundary formation are formed. This is influenced via an ANSYS simulation in real time.  A number of aerodynamics parameters such as the angle, static pressure, pressure oscillation, and root mean square, and frequency, coefficient of lift, drag, dynamic pressure and velocity are examined.

Background of an Aerofoil

The shape of an aerofoil has to be by convention prescribed according to the surface and velocity distribution parameters. Depending on the type of flow, various design models and mechanisms have been adopted for the inviscid flows (Levy Jr, 1978). For example, some are based on the stream function that corresponds to the function of the aerofoil. According to a report on how things work, the main requirement in functionality of an aerofoil is to provide enough lift in an effort to counter the weight of the plane (Menter, 1994). Viewing the structure of an airplane, the lift and the weight are the two major forces that interact and affect the movement and structure of the airfoil. The other corresponding forces are the thrust and the drag forces. This can be properly visualized in the structure of an airplane as presented in the figure below.
 
Geometrical structure of the airfoil
The lift force is generated using the wings. An airfoil refers to the cross-section shape of the wings. Understanding the structure and properties of the airfoil is essential and has been presented in the figure below.

When the pressure above the wings is more than the pressure below, a lift force is generated. The pressure difference between the below the wing position and above the wing position results to an overall net force upwards (Raghunathan, Gillan, Cooper, Mitchell & Cole, 1999).  However, for this to be achieved, the following factors has to be achieved. One, the surface of the wing has to be curved or cambered and there must exist an angle of inclination that is tilted relative to direction of the airflow.  

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