Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology is regarded as one of the most valuable technologies. For the past few decades, the study of wireless communication has been the focus and emphasis of many researchers and information technology analysts. WSN consists of a considerable number of low-power, low-cost, multifunctional sensor nodes that have high sensing, computation and wireless networking capabilities.
Design objectives section addresses the main purpose for the design. The major concerns are the characteristics of the designs to be implemented. When compared with other communication network channels such as traditional networks that comprise wireless communications like mobile and cellular systems, WSNs unique characteristics emerge. On the other hand, the network design objective since the integral objective in a WSN lies within the consideration of the design and parts of the sensor networks. Weak and small sensor nodes determine the design. It is essential to develop sensor nodes of low power consumption, as recharging or replacing the batteries is not useful. Routing issues will also be evaluated since during the consideration of features of design in a WSN, there are various practical concerns that need evolution as depicted in the paper. Protocols of wireless sensor networks will be discussed in detail. Compared to traditional conventional means of routing, WSN protocols are relatively different. In the former, sensor nodes are prone to failure. Wireless links, on the other hand, are not reliable, and routing protocols should be developed according to strict energy saving constraints. Location-based protocols work on the basis of the strict predetermination of the objects (sensor nodes) location, so the energy saving purposes depends on the distance between nodes or their groups. Geographic Adaptive Fidelity (GAF) is a routing protocol initially proposed for MANET, but then was introduced for WSN as well, due to its energy-saving peculiarities.
The data centric protocols will also be evaluated. There is a definite difference between data-centric and address-centric protocols. In the former, data is always sent to the sink from the source sensors. On the other hand, the address-centric protocol makes use of a policy where source sensors send the data to the sink. Here, there are some intermediate sensors that can aggregate the data, and later send them to the target sensors. In addition, hierarchical protocols will be shown. The concept of hierarchical rules depends on hierarchical clustering in WSN. According to this principle, several clusters of sensors are operating in this regard, with one head sensor node in each cluster. This will be followed by mobility routing protocols. Mobility-based routing protocols guarantee new challenges within the wireless sensor network. The data are delivered to the mobile sinks via energy-efficient channels. In addition multi-path protocols are evaluated. There are significant differences between single-path and multi-path routing protocols. In single-path, routing occurs through one single way from the foundation of the shortest possible path. In the case with the multi-path routing, the overall load is distributed between different paths in order to ensure the transferring without any issues. Lastly, quality of service protocols are shown. When considering the essence of the routing protocols, it is essential to take into account not only the minimized energy consumption, but also the quality of data transmitting services